Cases reported "Candidiasis, Vulvovaginal"

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1/32. Therapeutic experience with fluconazole in the treatment of fungal infections in diabetic patients.

    diabetes mellitus is associated with a higher incidence of certain infections, including fungal infections like rhinocerebral zygomycosis (RCZ) and cutaneous candidosis. As the pathophysiology of increased susceptibility to infection of diabetic patients is very complex, a general therapeutic approach is not existing yet. Appropriate diabetes control remains as the best preventive measure. Nevertheless, effective drug therapy is very often required. fluconazole has proven efficacy in prophylaxis, treatment and suppressive therapy of both systemic and superficial fungal infections, especially in candidosis and cryptococcosis. Therefore it is used routinely against fungal infections in diabetes (FID). Clinical efficacy of fluconazole against cutaneous candidosis, oropharyngeal candidosis (OPC) and vulvovaginal candidosis (VVC) has been confirmed in more than 100 studies, involving more than 10,000 patients (pts). The overall success rate is 90%, with a mean dosage of 100-200 mg/d. In severe cases, e.g. in OPC in late-stage AIDS pts or in recurrent VVC, higher dosages of up to 800 mg/d may be required. In the treatment of RCZ, therapeutic experience with fluconazole is limited. Four diabetic pts have been treated with dosages of 200-300 mg/d and all of them recovered. Nevertheless, treatment of RCZ should include surgical debridement combined with aggressive antifungal therapy. In conclusion, proven efficacy and the excellent safety profile justify the routine use of fluconazole in the treatment of FID. ( info)

2/32. Combined topical flucytosine and amphotericin b for refractory vaginal candida glabrata infections.

    patients with vaginitis due to highly azole resistant candida glabrata can be particularly difficult to treat. We describe three cases of longstanding vaginal candidiasis due to C glabrata. These had failed to respond to local and systemic antifungals. flucytosine (1 g) and amphotericin b (100 mg) formulated in lubricating jelly base in a total 8 g delivered dose, was used per vagina once daily for 14 days with significant improvement, both clinically and microbiologically. ( info)

3/32. Antifungal activity against Candida species of the selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitor, sertraline.

    Three patients with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) and recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) underwent sertraline therapy (Tresleen, a selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitor; Pfizer) for PMDD. During sertraline intervention, patients had no recurrent episodes of acute VVC. Antifungal activity was observed for sertraline against various isolates of Candida species. ( info)

4/32. Evaluation and management of HIV-infected women.

    The rate of newly diagnosed AIDS in the united states is increasing fastest in women, who are infected with HIV primarily through heterosexual transmission. Approximately 60% of these women are African American, and 18% are Latina. A gynecologic infection is the most common symptom that leads to initial medical evaluation. Specific studies at baseline should include cd4 lymphocyte count, hiv-1 rna level, and gynecologic examination with Papanicolaou smear. Decisions about initiation of antiretroviral therapy depend on the patient's clinical diagnoses, her willingness to adhere to treatment, and CD4 lymphocyte and hiv-1 rna levels. Levels of hiv-1 rna may be somewhat lower in women than in men at the same CD4 count, whereas women have higher CD4 lymphocyte counts at the time of AIDS diagnosis. However, prospective trials have not yet indicated the need to change the threshold CD4 lymphocyte counts or HIV-rna levels for initiation of therapy in women. The efficacy of antiretroviral therapy appears to be similar in men and women, although women are more likely to experience toxicities. Abnormal Papanicolaou smears occur in approximately 40% of women at baseline, and 58% are infected with human papillomavirus. The prevalence of both conditions increases with lower CD4 lymphocyte counts and higher hiv-1 rna levels. Precursor lesions to cervical cancer may be effectively treated, but almost 50% recur within 1 year, mandating careful follow-up. Referral should be sought for specialized gynecologic care and for issues related to HIV itself, since survival is prolonged in patients treated by physicians who are experienced in treating HIV. When they are provided the same access to care, HIV-infected women have similar prognoses as HIV-infected men. ( info)

5/32. Candida lusitaniae as an unusual cause of recurrent vaginitis and its successful treatment with intravaginal boric acid.

    Increasing use of short-course antifungal therapies in patients with recurrent vulvovaginitis may enable the emergence of less-common, more resistant yeast strains as vaginal pathogens. We report the case of a patient with chronically symptomatic and repeatedly treated vaginal candidiasis whose infection was attributable to Candida lusitaniae, a previously unreported cause of candidal vaginitis. ( info)

6/32. women and HIV: when to test?

    The devastating effects of HIV infection in women can be altered dramatically with new therapies. Certain clinical syndromes, including oral thrush, diffuse lymphadenopathy, wasting, unexplained fevers, or oral hairy leukoplakia, clearly indicate a need for HIV testing. This article reviews other clinical syndromes, both gender-specific and non-gender-specific, that may prompt the practitioner to consider HIV testing. ( info)

7/32. Two cases of systemic candida glabrata infection following in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer.

    Presented here are two cases of systemic candida glabrata infection diagnosed in two expectant mothers and their fetuses at 34 and 22 weeks' gestation. The underlying risk factors in case 1 were in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer, recurrent yeast vaginitis and two intravenous injections of betamethasone. The risk factors in case 2 were in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer, recurrent yeast vaginitis, antibiotics for treatment of a urinary tract infection due to morganella morganii and amniocentesis. In both cases, vaginal fluid yielded growth of a yeast that was not identified. candida glabrata was isolated from samples obtained from the mothers and their babies. Since candida glabrata lacks hyphae, membranitis and infection of the fetuses were demonstrated only on slides stained with Gomori Grocott and periodic acid-Schiff. Both cases suggest that for such pregnancies the follow-up of vaginal fluid should include the identification of any yeasts grown on selective Candida medium. In case of premature rupture of membranes, systematic sampling of mothers and their infants or fetuses should be associated with microscopic study of placentas, membranes and stillborn fetuses with Gomori Grocott and periodic acid-Schiff staining techniques. ( info)

8/32. Botulinum toxin for the treatment of genital pain syndromes.

    Our purpose was to test the effect of botulinum toxin injections on hypertonic pelvic floor muscles of patients suffering from genital pain syndromes. We report two cases of women complaining of a genital pain syndrome resistant to pharmacological therapies and rehabilitation exercises associated with a documented involuntary tonic contraction of the levator ani muscle as a defense reaction triggered by vulvar pain. We performed botulinum toxin injections into the levator ani with the intent to relieve pelvic muscular spasms. Within a few days after the injections both the patients reported a complete resolution of the painful symptomatology, lasting for several months. Our experience suggests that botulinum injections are indicated in patients with genital pain syndrome with documented pelvic muscle hyperactivity, whose symptoms arise not only from genital inflammation and lesions, but also, and sometimes chiefly, from levator ani myalgia. ( info)

9/32. Socio-cultural factors affecting the spread of HIV/AIDS in africa: a case study.

    There is a disproportionate share of AIDS cases over the years in africa. This has occurred in racial and ethnic minority populations, a finding likely related to social, economic and cultural factors. Certain socio-cultural and religious practices such as polygamy and giving a daughter away in marriage without considering the social life of the man are likely contributory factors to the higher prevalence of HIV/AIDS in women in this part of the world. This is illustrated with a case of Mr. M. S. who married two wives within four months interval, having lived a promiscuous life before marriage. One of the wives was a virgin at the time of marriage. Neither of wives had any symptoms suggestive of STD or HIV before marriage, however, the three of them tested positive to hiv-1 following a visit to the special treatment clinic. He had genital herpes and his two wives also had vulvovaginal candidiasis, genital herpes and condyloma accuminata (genital warts). The husband would not want his HIV status declared to the wives. There is therefore a need to enact law on pre-marriage HIV screening for intending couples. Couple Pre-and post-test counseling must be encouraged and promoted. In addition, women should be empowered to negotiate safer sex. ( info)

10/32. Vulvovaginal candidiasis refractory to treatment with fluconazole.

    We present the case of an infertile patient, whose first attempt at IVF had to be postponed for 18 months due to a vulvovaginal yeast infection refractory to treatment. The main causative organism was a candida glabrata strain resistant to all the imidazolic agents tested. The organism and the host's humoral status were studied in depth, looking for possible causes of the refractoriness to treatment. ( info)
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