Cases reported "Cerebral Infarction"

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11/2677. Fatal haemorrhagic infarct in an infant with homocystinuria.

    Thrombotic and thromboembolic complications are the main causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with homocystinuria. However, it is unusual for thrombosis and infarction to be the presenting feature leading to investigation for homocystinuria and cerebrovascular lesions in the first year of life. We describe a previously healthy 6-month-old infant who presented with a large middle-cerebral-artery territory infarction and died of massive brain swelling. homocystinuria due to cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) deficiency was diagnosed by metabolite analysis and confirmed by enzymatic activity measurement in a postmortem liver biopsy. homocystinuria should be considered in the differential diagnosis of venous or arterial thrombosis, regardless of age, even in the absence of other common features of the disease. We recommend systematic metabolic screening for hyperhomocysteinemia in any child presenting with vascular lesions or premature thromboembolism. ( info)

12/2677. Bilateral infarction in the territory of the anterior cerebral arteries.

    An elderly hypertensive man had extensive bilateral infarction in the distribution of the anterior cerebral arteries. The circle of willis was fully formed, but occlusion of the dominant anterior cerebral artery, aggravated and perhaps caused by postlaparotomy hypotension, produced the dramatic lesions, causing akinetic mutism. This stroke pattern occurs in various settings and does not require an anomalous azygous unilateral supply to both anterior cerebral arteries. ( info)

13/2677. Omental transposition for cerebral infarction: a 13-year follow-up study.

    BACKGROUND: During the past decade there has been increasing use of omental transposition to the brain of patients who experienced neurologic sequelae after a cerebral infarction. This paper reports the long-term neurologic effects seen in a patient who underwent omental transposition 31 months after a stroke. Her postoperative follow-up period has been 13 years. CASE DESCRIPTION: The patient had an expressive aphasia, a right hemiparesis and the inability to read which occurred immediately after her stroke. After surgery she demonstrated subjective and objective improvement in her speech and mobility. She also regained her ability to read shortly after surgery. CONCLUSION: The patient demonstrated that omental transposition to the brain can improve neurologic function in the presence of a long-standing cerebral infarction and that the clinical improvement can be maintained over an extended period. ( info)

14/2677. Cerebral bleeding, infarcts, and presumed extrapontine myelinolysis in hypernatraemic dehydration.

    The neuroimaging findings in an infant with hypernatremic dehydration are presented. brain parenchymal haemorrhage and extensive multiple infarcts were present in the acute stage. Follow-up CT showed bilateral, symmetrical changes presumed to indicate extrapontine myelinolysis in the thalamus and globus pallidus. MRI confirmed sparing of the pons. Only three previous cases of neuroimaging abnormalities due to hypernatraemia have been described in the radiological literature. ( info)

15/2677. Thrombotic risk in thalassemic patients.

    Hemostatic parameters of 495 beta-thalassemic patients (421 with thalassemia major and 74 with thalassemia intermedia) were analyzed, to assess their association with the described thrombophilic condition and to verify the role of additional risk factors (e.g. persistent postsplenectomy thrombocytosis, insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, estrogen-progestin treatment and atrial fibrillation). The prevalence of thromboembolic accidents was 5.2% and in four patients (15.3%) inherited or acquired predisposing defects were recognized. The incidence of thromboembolic events and the associated relative risk due to hemocoagulative abnormalities in these patients are discussed. ( info)

16/2677. factor v Leiden and antibodies against phospholipids and protein S in a young woman with recurrent thromboses and abortion.

    We describe the case of a 39-year-old woman who suffered two iliofemoral venous thromboses, a cerebral ischemic infarct and recurrent fetal loss. Initial studies showed high levels of antiphospholipid antibodies (APAs) and a moderate thrombocytopenia. After her second miscarriage, laboratory diagnosis revealed that the woman was heterozygous for the factor v Leiden mutation and had a functional protein s deficiency as well as anti-protein S and anti-beta 2-glycoprotein i antibodies. The impairment of the protein c pathway at various points could well explain the recurrent thromboses in the patient and supports the role of a disturbed protein c system in the pathophysiology of thrombosis in patients with APAs. ( info)

17/2677. Cerebellar infarct caused by spontaneous thrombosis of a developmental venous anomaly of the posterior fossa.

    Spontaneous thrombosis of a posterior fossa developmental venous anomaly (DVA) caused a nonhemorrhagic cerebellar infarct in a 31-year-old man who also harbored a midbrain cavernous angioma. DVA thrombosis was well depicted on CT and MR studies and was proved at angiography by the demonstration of an endoluminal clot. ( info)

18/2677. On some neurobiological and cultural-anthropological aspects of the contralateral-neglect syndrome.

    Contralateral neglect is a frequent clinical syndrome which can be provoked by lesions in several brain areas (primarily inferior parietal and frontal) and includes symptoms of motor and perceptual negligence of both real and imaginative contralateral hemi-space. Attentional and representative theories attempting to explain neglect are presently the most popular. This paper analyzes two cases of neglect patients. Paying attention especially to their reading defects, a possible role of the persons with contralateral neglect is proposed in the development of script. Other neurobiological and cultural-anthropological questions arising from the analysis of these cases are also discussed. ( info)

19/2677. Cerebral polyopia with extrastriate quadrantanopia: report of a case with magnetic resonance documentation of V2/V3 cortical infarction.

    This is a case report of the occurrence of cerebral diplopia with right-side superior homonymous quadrantanopia in a young woman after chiropractic neck manipulation. magnetic resonance imaging confirmed an infarct in the left inferior V2/V3 (extrastriate) cortex. The characteristics of the diplopia are illustrated with the patient's drawings, and persisting abnormalities in perception are described in the area of the initial field defect after static (computed) visual field testing yielded normal results. ( info)

20/2677. Plasticity of language-related brain function during recovery from stroke.

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This study was undertaken to correlate functional recovery from aphasia after acute stroke with the temporal evolution of the anatomic, physiological, and functional changes as measured by MRI. methods: blood oxygenation level-dependent contrast and echo-planar MRI were used to map language comprehension in 6 normal adults and in 2 adult patients during recovery from acute stroke presenting with aphasia. perfusion, diffusion, sodium, and conventional anatomic MRI were used to follow physiological and structural changes. RESULTS: The normal activation pattern for language comprehension showed activation predominately in left-sided Wernicke's and Broca's areas, with laterality ratios of 0.8 and 0.3, respectively. Recovery of the patient confirmed as having a completed stroke affecting Broca's area occurred rapidly with a shift of activation to the homologous region in the right hemisphere within 3 days, with continued rightward lateralization over 6 months. In the second patient, in whom mapping was performed fortuitously before stroke, recovery of a Wernicke's aphasia showed a similar increasing rightward shift in activation recruitment over 9 months after the event. CONCLUSIONS: Recovery of aphasia in adults can occur rapidly and is concomitant with an activation pattern that changes from left to a homologous right hemispheric pattern. Such recovery occurs even when the stroke evolves to completion. Such plasticity must be considered when evaluating stroke interventions based on behavioral and neurological measurements. ( info)
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