Cases reported "Cheyne-Stokes Respiration"

Filter by keywords:

Retrieving documents. Please wait...

1/37. theophylline therapy for near-fatal cheyne-stokes respiration. A case report.

    BACKGROUND: cheyne-stokes respiration is characterized by periodic breathing that alternates with hypopnea or apnea. OBJECTIVE: To describe the effect of theophylline on near-fatal cheyne-stokes respiration. DESIGN: Case report. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. PATIENT: A 48-year-old diabetic woman with a history of three cardiorespiratory arrests, a normal coronary arteriogram, normal left ventricular function, and severe cheyne-stokes respiration. MEASUREMENTS: oxygen saturation, intra-arterial blood pressure, central venous pressure, chest wall movement, electrocardiography, electromyography, electroencephalography, electro-oculography, minute ventilation, arterial blood gases, and serum theophylline levels. RESULTS: After intravenous administration of 1.2 mg of theophylline at 0.6 mg/kg per hour (serum level, 5.6 microg/mL), both cheyne-stokes respiration and oxygen desaturation were markedly attenuated. After infusion of 2.4 mg of theophylline (serum level, 11.6 microg/mL), cheyne-stokes respiration resolved completely. No change was seen with placebo. cheyne-stokes respiration did not recur during outpatient treatment with oral theophylline. CONCLUSION: theophylline may be a rapid and effective therapy for life-threatening cheyne-stokes respiration. ( info)

2/37. Unusual respiratory response to oxygen in an infant with repetitive cyanotic episodes.

    High inspired oxygen concentrations have recently been recommended to control cheyne-stokes respiration in adults, with the intention of averting periodic apnea and its attendant arterial desaturation. We report a case study on an infant presenting with recurrent apnea and cyanosis in which oxygen treatment led to a gross form of respiratory instability we call episodic breathing, in which a breathing phase of 60 to 90 s alternated with an apnea lasting up to 60 s. When oxygen was discontinued, a profound arterial desaturation developed before breathing recommenced and restored oxygen levels. We propose that episodic breathing is an unusual respiratory pattern that involves the central chemoreceptors and results from the ventilatory threshold (the central PCO(2) at which breathing starts) lying considerably above the apneic threshold (the central PCO(2 )at which breathing stops). This feature predisposes to lengthy periods of hyperpnea alternating with lengthy periods of apnea. We suggest that when the case infant returned to air during episodic breathing, termination of apnea was entirely dependent upon carotid body activity, which reached a sufficient level to restart breathing only when arterial desaturation was severe. We conclude that oxygen therapy involves potential risks when employed to treat respiratory disorders involving unstable breathing patterns in the infant. ( info)

3/37. cheyne-stokes respiration as an additional risk factor for pulmonary hypertension in a boy with trisomy 21 and atrioventricular septal defect.

    Central ventilation disorders(1) and airway obstruction(2) with chronic hypoxemia are causally related to cor pulmonale. Pulmonary vascular resistance is often reversible, and hypoxic pulmonary hypertension often responds to treatment with supplemental oxygen. oxygen therapy during sleep may be useful as a temporary palliative treatment in children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (3) and cheyne-stokes respiration (CSR) in congestive heart failure(4). This type of sleep-related breathing disorder is characterized by periodic crescendo-decrescendo alterations in tidal volume. Proposed mechanism include an increased central nervous system sensitivity to changes in arterial PCO2 and PO2, a decrease in total body stores of CO2 and O2 with resulting instability in arterial blood gas tensions in response to changes in ventilation, and an increased circulatory time. Clinical features of obstructive and central sleep-related breathing disorders include daytime somnolence, unusual breathing patterns, failure to thrive, and cyanosis masquerading as cyanotic congenital heart disease(2). down syndrome is often associated with cardiac malformations, left to right shunt, and the development of pulmonary hypertension(5). However, this may be exacerbated by sleep-related breathing disorders, as illustrated in the following case report. ( info)

4/37. Congestive heart failure and continuous positive airway pressure therapy: support of a new modality for improving the prognosis and survival of patients with advanced congestive heart failure.

    Nasal continuous positive airway pressure therapy has recently been studied as a nonpharmacologic adjunct to congestive heart failure therapy. In patients with congestive heart failure, it was reported that continuous positive airway pressure therapy for the condition cheyne-stokes respiration with central sleep apnea led to long-term improvements in cardiac function and alleviation of heart failure symptoms. cheyne-stokes respiration with central sleep apnea is a frequent breathing disorder well described in patients with congestive heart failure, and is an associated risk factor for increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. These apneas cause an increase in sympathetic nervous system activity, which would maintain afterload at a high level or tend to increase it with time, leading to further compromise of ejection fraction. continuous positive airway pressure appears to benefit the failing heart by increasing intrathoracic pressure, which is believed to cause an increase in cardiac output by decreasing the pressure gradient across the heart wall and allowing the left-ventricular end diastolic volume to decrease, thereby reducing the afterload. This beneficial "resting" of the heart has been documented to increase left-ventricular ejection fraction, increase cardiac index, improve inspiratory muscle strength, lower blood pressure and heart rate, decrease plasma and overnight urinary levels of norepinephrine, lower levels of atrial natriuretic peptide and endothelin-1, and increase heart rate variability. Other benefits include improvement in new york Heart association functional class status and improvement in dyspnea. ( info)

5/37. cheyne-stokes respiration during sleep: a possible effect of body position.

    BACKGROUND: cheyne-stokes respiration (CSR) is a common finding in Chronic Heart Failure and stroke patients. The body position effect during sleep on obstructive breathing abnormalities is well known. However, the effect of body position during sleep on breathing abnormalities of central type like CSR has not been well documented. MATERIAL/methods: Six sleep studies (two complete Polysomnographic (PSG) evaluations and four pulse oximetry recordings (PO)), were carried out in a 57-year-old female patient with a recent Cerebro Vascular Accident (CVA who had both Obstructive Sleep apnea (OSA) and CSR. RESULTS: The first PSG was carried out two months post-stroke and revealed a severe, continuous CSR pattern during Non Rapid eye movements (NREM) sleep (mainly with central apneas), and Obstructive Sleep apnea (OSA) during Rapid eye movements (REM) sleep, independent of body position: Supine Respiratory Disturbance Index (SRDI) = 85.2 and Lateral RDI (LRDI) = 95.4. A second PSG was performed three months later after an overall clinical improvement and showed a complete disappearance of CSR during NREM sleep and OSA during REM sleep in her lateral posture (LRDI = 0), while the RDI in the supine posture was only slightly improved (SRDI = 73.2). The CSR pattern was less severe and was characterized mainly by central hypopneas. Two PO recordings between the PSG studies showed similar improvement trends. Two additional PO recordings, two and three weeks after the last PSG (the first one with the patient lying supine and the second one with the patient lying on her side throughout the night), revealed a further significant improvement in the supine posture (SRDI = 37.5). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that body posture may play a role not only in the prevalence and severity of obstructive breathing disorders, but also in CSR, a central type of breathing abnormalities during sleep. ( info)

6/37. sleep disorders.

    humans spend approximately one third of their lives asleep. Although the same medical disorders that occur during wakefulness persist into sleep, there are many disorders that occur exclusively during sleep or are manifestations of a disturbance of normal sleep-wake physiology. The most common reason for referral to a sleep laboratory is OSA, whereas the most common sleep disorder is insomnia. Effective treatments now exist for many sleep disorders, such as OSA and RLS, and a major breakthrough in the treatment of narcolepsy seems imminent. Because all disease processes are adversely affected by insufficient sleep, it is essential that the practicing physician understand the causes and treatments of the common sleep disorders. ( info)

7/37. Reversal of nocturnal periodic breathing in primary pulmonary hypertension after lung transplantation.

    Nocturnal periodic breathing (PB) closely resembling cheyne-stokes respiration in congestive heart failure has been reported to occur in end-stage primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH). We herein describe the clinical course of a 56-year-old female patient with PPH and severe hypoxemia, hypocapnia, and right ventricular compromise in whom sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) resolved after successful double-lung transplantation. This case illustrates the crucial roles of blood gas alterations and hemodynamic impairment in the emergence of PB in PPH, and is in favor of a genuine association between advanced right heart failure and the development of SDB. ( info)

8/37. Elimination of central sleep apnoea by mitral valvuloplasty: the role of feedback delay in periodic breathing.

    Central sleep apnoea is a form of periodic breathing which resembles cheyne-stokes respiration but occurs only during sleep. One mechanism in the pathogenesis is a delay in chemical feedback from the lungs to the medullary respiratory centre. We explored the relationship between circulatory feedback delay in a patient with central sleep apnoea and cheyne-stokes respiration before and after mitral valve repair. Preoperatively the patient had severe central sleep apnoea and an increased circulation time. Following mitral valvuloplasty the circulation time was decreased with resolution of central sleep apnoea. This case demonstrates the role of feedback delay in central sleep apnoea and suggests that similar haemodynamic mechanisms may lead to central sleep apnoea and cheyne-stokes respiration. ( info)

9/37. Improvement of cheyne-stokes respiration, central sleep apnea and congestive heart failure by noninvasive bilevel positive pressure and medical treatment.

    A 57-year-old man was admitted with dyspnea. Clinical evaluation revealed atrial fibrillation and congestive heart failure (CHF). Standard medical therapy of CHF failed to completely improve the dyspnea and polysomnography revealed cheyne-stokes respiration with central sleep apnea (CSR-CSA). He was equipped with noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) with bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP). The combined therapy of medical treatment of the CHF and administration of NPPV with BiPAP reduced the CSR-CSA. This regimen resulted in marked improvement of cardiac function, evaluated by echocardiography, and reduction of plasma concentration of brain natriuretic peptide. After the patient recovered from CHF and was discharged from hospital, he continued to use NPPV with BiPAP at home. In patients with CHF, it is important to be aware of sleep-related breathing disorders because treatment will not only improve the hypoxemia, but also the cardiac dysfunction. ( info)

10/37. death during polysomnography of a patient with cheyne-stokes respiration, respiratory acidosis, and chronic heart failure.

    A patient with chronic heart failure and chronic respiratory failure (CRF) underwent ambulatory polysomnography at home. She was found dead on the morning after the recording. The tracings confirmed severe sleep apnea syndrome. After 8 h of incessant cheyne-stokes respiration during sleep, respiratory arrest occurred, followed 7 min later by asystole. This report illustrates a case of respiratory drive failure during sleep as the mode of death in a patient with heart failure, sleep apnea syndrome, and CRF. ( info)
| Next ->

Leave a message about 'cheyne-stokes respiration'

We do not evaluate or guarantee the accuracy of any content in this site. Click here for the full disclaimer.