Cases reported "Chromosome Disorders"

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1/2291. Increased sister chromatid exchange in bone marrow and blood cells from Bloom's syndrome.

    Bone-marrow cells from a patient with Bloom's syndrome cultured for 48 h in the presence of BudR exhibited a striking increase in the number of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) in comparison to that in the marrow cells of a patient with treated polycythemia vera (PV). Thus, it appears that an increased incidence of SCE in Bloom's syndrome occurs in various differentiated types of cells, not just blood lymphocytes, and constitutes the syndrome's most characteristic cytogenetic feature. In contrast, the incidence of SCE was not increased in marrow cells and lymphocytes of the particular PV patient studied here, whose cells did exhibit increased numbers of chromatid and chromosome gaps and breaks, presumably as result of the patient's earlier treatment. An increased frequency of SCE was demonstrated in Bloom's syndrome lymphocytes using both a technique based on BudR incorporation and one based on labeling with tritated deoxycytidine. This observation constitutes evidence against the increase of SCE being due to an unusual reaction to BudR. By conventional cytogenetic techniques, chromosome instability, including chromatid and chromosome breaks, but no homologous chromatid interchanges were also recognized in Bloom's syndrome bone-marrow cells incubated in vitro (without BudR) for either 1.k or 16 h. This observation points to the existence of chromosome instability in vivo. ( info)

2/2291. Ring chromosome 14 complicated with complex partial seizures and hypoplastic corpus callosum.

    A Japanese male with mosaicism of ring chromosome 14 and chromosome 14 monosomy is described. He demonstrated the characteristic morphologic features of ring chromosome 14, in addition to mental retardation and epileptic seizures. Clusters of complex partial seizures, one of which originated in the left frontocentral region on electroencephalographic monitoring, were evident. His seizures responded to phenobarbital, and his mental and motor development was only mildly retarded. magnetic resonance imaging revealed a hypoplastic corpus callosum, previously unknown in association with this syndrome. ( info)

3/2291. Partial monosomy and partial trisomy 18 in two offspring of carrier of pericentric inversion of chromosome 18.

    A pericentric inversion of chromosome 18 is described in the mother of a patient with clinical diagnosis of 18q--syndrome. The propositus' chromosome complement includes the recombinant 18 with deficiency of the distal one-third of the long arm and duplication of the terminal segment of the short arm. The propositus' sister carrier the recombinant 18 with a duplication of the distal one-third of the long arm and a deficiency of the terminal segment of the short arm. The relative length of the inverted segment represents about 60% of the total chromosome 18 length. The probability of recombinant formation following the occurrence of a chiasma within the inverted segment is predicted to be high. ( info)

4/2291. Recurrent short rib-polydactyly syndrome with unusual associations.

    short rib-polydactyly syndrome (SRPS) is manifested by short-limb dwarfism, short ribs with thoracic hypoplasia, and polydactyly. This inheritable syndrome has distinct imaging findings on prenatal sonography, and ancillary findings on both pre- and postnatal assessments may enable individual cases to be classified into 1 of 4 subtypes. In this report, we present a recurrent case of SRPS that was associated with a cystic hygroma and choroid plexus cysts. Although cystic hygromas are not uncommonly seen in skeletal dysplasias, the presence of concomitant cystic hygroma and choroid plexus cysts suggests a chromosomal abnormality such as trisomy 18. ( info)

5/2291. Importance of basophilia in haematopoietic disorders.

    To the significance of basophilia in haematopoietic disorders, six draw attention to cases have been analyzed. Associated diseases included acute myelogenous leukaemia (AML-M2, M3, M4, and M6), refractory anaemia with excess of blasts (RAEB) and RAEB in transformation (RAEB-T). Two AML cases (M2, M6) were preceeded by myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). All patients showed greater than 3% basophilia in peripheral blood and bone marrow. basophils were identified successfully by metachromatic staining with toluidine blue in all cases. Three patients (M3, M4, RAEB) presented with lymphadenopathy, suggesting an association with extramedullary involvement. Neutrophil alkaline phosphatase (NAP) activity was significantly reduced in four patients with AML (M2, M3, M4) and RAEB-T. The clinical course was generally unfavourable characterized by short remission duration or disease progression except for the patient with RAEB. Haemorrhage was the main cause of death rather than infection. cytogenetic analysis revealed unique abnormalities involving chromosomes 3q21, 5q31, and 17q11 where the genes for some haematopoietic growth factors or their receptors are located, in addition to t(6;9) and t(15;17). ( info)

6/2291. Isolation and characterization of a new human breast cancer cell line, KPL-4, expressing the Erb B family receptors and interleukin-6.

    A new human breast cancer cell line, KPL-4, was recently isolated from the malignant pleural effusion of a breast cancer patient with an inflammatory skin metastasis. This cell line can be cultured under serum-free conditions and is tumorigenic in female athymic nude mice. Flow cytometric analysis revealed the expression of Erb B-1, -2 and -3. Dot blot hybridization showed a 15-fold amplification of the erb B-2. reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed a detectable level of mRNA expression of all the Erb B family receptors. In addition, all the receptors were autophosphorylated under a serum-supplemented condition. Unexpectedly, transplanted KPL-4 tumours induced cachexia of recipient mice. A high concentration of interleukin-6 (IL-6) was detected in both the culture medium and the serum of mice. The weight of tumours significantly correlated with the serum IL-6 level. The antiproliferative effect of a humanized anti-Erb B-2 monoclonal antibody, rhuMAbHER2, was investigated. This antibody significantly inhibited the growth of KPL-4 cells in vitro but modestly in vivo. Loss of mouse body weight was partly reversed by rhuMAbHER2. These findings suggest that KPL-4 cells may be useful in the development of new strategies against breast cancer overexpressing the Erb B family receptors and against IL-6-induced cachexia. ( info)

7/2291. Extra euchromatic band in the qh region of chromosome 9.

    Chromosomal analysis of amniotic cell culture revealed an extra euchromatic band in the variable heterochromatin region 9q12. cytogenetic analysis of the fetus was compared with the chromosomes of the parents. Using different cytogenetic banding techniques and fluorescence in situ hybridization with specific dna probes, the structural rearrangements involved were considered. The very rare variant proved to be familial. Demonstrating the inheritance of a normal individual supports the interpretation of the prenatal analysis of chromosome 9 as a variant without clinical relevance for the fetus. ( info)

8/2291. Progressive dystonia in a child with chromosome 18p deletion, treated with intrathecal baclofen.

    We report a case of dystonia with a partial deletion of the short arm (p) of chromosome 18 and androgen insensitivity. Neurologic findings in the 18p syndrome are reported to include mental retardation, seizures, incoordination, tremor, and chorea. A 15-year-old girl with a denovo 18p deletion [karyotype 46, XY, del (18)(p11.1)] developed progressive asymmetric dystonia. She had oromotor apraxia and partial expressive aphasia since childhood, and she was able to partially communicate through elementary sign language. At the age of 15 years, she developed subacute and progressive choreic movements of the right arm, severe dystonic posturing of the left arm, and spastic dystonia in both legs. Her response to parenteral or oral benzodiazepines, oral trihexyphenidyl, benztropine mesylate, baclofen, and L-dopa were brief and inadequate. The response to intrathecal baclofen has been sustained over 18 months. In all likelihood, the 18p deletion syndrome affecting this patient is significant in the pathogenesis of her acquired dystonia. Chronic intrathecal baclofen therapy via pump has been effective in this case and should be considered as a treatment modality in carefully selected patients with dystonia. ( info)

9/2291. persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous with retinal tumor in tuberous sclerosis: report of a case including tumoral immunohistochemistry and cytogenetic analyses.

    OBJECTIVE: The authors describe an ocular lesion combining the characteristics of persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous (PHPV) and a retinal tumor in an infant with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). STUDY DESIGN: Case report. methods: immunohistochemistry and cytogenetic studies were performed on TSC cells from an intraocular tumor in a 6-week-old infant. RESULTS: Histopathologic examination showed a thick fibrovascular membrane between the aspect of the lens and the astrocytic component of the mass. glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) showed a variable intracytoplasmic reaction in the astrocytic proliferation, involving approximately 50% of the cells. Tissue culture studies showed a fairly rapid proliferation of fusiform cells, consistent with bipolar astrocytic cells. Cytogenetic studies showed one abnormal clone consisting of three hyperdiploid cells with a loss of chromosome 9 and a gain of chromosomes 6 and 12. CONCLUSION: The atypical localization of the retinal tumor could be explained by the fact that it was trapped during its proliferation by the retinal detachment associated with the PHPV. ( info)

10/2291. Indeterminate-cell histiocytosis: immunophenotypic and cytogenetic findings in an infant.

    BACKGROUND: The authors report the immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and cytogenetic findings in a case of malignant histiocytic proliferation in an infant. PROCEDURE: The patient presented initially with bone lesions without skin or systemic involvement. Multiple biopsies were studied extensively by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. Cytogenetic studies of cell cultures supplemented with granulocyte-monocyte colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) were also performed. RESULTS: Morphologically, the cells resembled langerhans cells, although with greater pleomorphism, as evinced by cells with usual polylobated nuclei. These cells expressed markers for macrophages and antigen presenting cells and were CD1a- and S-100-positive, but lacked Birbeck granules. The cells grown in culture supplemented with GM-CSF showed a unique combination of numerical and structural abnormalities affecting chromosomes 1, 6, 8, and 10. The disease followed a malignant course leading to the patient's demise despite aggressive chemotherapy and bone marrow transplant. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest a malignant hematopoietic stem-cell neoplasm with a capacity for macrophage or dendritic-cell differentiation. Morphology and immunophenotypic features place this neoplasm within the group recently conceptualized as indeterminate-cell histiocytosis. ( info)
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