Cases reported "Churg-Strauss Syndrome"

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1/239. Eosinophil active cytokines and surface analysis of eosinophils in Churg-Strauss syndrome.

    There are few reports regarding the measurement of cytokines and surface analysis of eosinophils in churg-strauss syndrome (CSS). To examine the pathophysiology of CSS, concentrations of cytokines in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and surface antigens on peripheral blood eosinophils were analyzed in five patients with CSS. Concentrations of cytokines (interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-3 (IL-3), interleukin-5 (IL-5) and granulocyte/macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) were measured using ELISA. Surface antigens on eosinophils in peripheral blood were analyzed using flow cytometry. A concentration of interleukin-5 (IL-5) and TNF-alpha in serum was detected in five cases; however IL-1 beta, GM-CSF, and IL-3 were detected in 3 of 5, 2 of 5, and 1 of 5 patients, respectively. In BALF, TNF-alpha and IL-5 were detected in 2 of 3 and 1 of 3 patients, respectively; however, neither IL-1 beta, GM-CSF, nor IL-3 was detected in any. Newly expressed surface antigens such as CD25, CD4, and CD69 were observed on peripheral blood eosinophils in five cases. CD54 and HLA-DR were expressed in 4 of 5 and 3 of 5 patients, respectively. eosinophils in peripheral blood are activated to various degrees, possibly depending on cytokine stimulation. This eosinophil activation may be related to the clinical stage of CSS. ( info)

2/239. Marked improvement of Churg-Strauss vasculitis with intravenous gammaglobulins.

    Churg-Strauss vasculitis (CSV) is a systemic vasculitis usually treated with steroids and cytotoxic drugs. Herein, we describe the beneficial effect of intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) in a 50-year-old man with CSV. The IVIG therapy brought a marked clinical improvement, with impressive decline in the titers of antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody. ( info)

3/239. pulmonary eosinophilia associated with montelukast.

    Antileukotriene drugs are new therapeutic agents that have recently been approved for the treatment of asthma. Several cases of eosinophilic conditions including churg-strauss syndrome have been reported to be associated with zafirlukast, a cysteinyl leukotriene type 1 receptor antagonist. So far no other leukotriene modifier has been associated with the syndrome. The case history is presented of a man with allergic rhinitis and asthma who had received intermittent pulse therapy with oral corticosteroids. pulmonary eosinophilia developed while he was receiving treatment with montelukast, a chemically distinct cysteinyl leukotriene type 1 receptor antagonist. After discontinuation of montelukast therapy and administration of systemic corticosteroids the patient's symptoms reversed rapidly and there was prompt resolution of the pulmonary infiltrates. We believe that cysteinyl leukotriene type 1 receptor antagonists are safe and effective drugs for most patients with asthma but caution is needed for those with more severe disease who require systemic corticosteroids, especially if they show characteristics of the atypical allergic diathesis seen in the prodromal phase of churg-strauss syndrome. ( info)

4/239. Cutaneous extravascular necrotizing granuloma (Churg Strauss granuloma).

    Churg Strauss granuloma (cutaneous extravascular necrotizing granuloma) is a distinct entity which is associated with systemic immunoreactive or autoimmune diseases in a majority of cases. Typically, Churg Strauss granuloma presents as symmetrical papules or nodules on the extremities. There are two histological patterns: the classic pattern reveals palisading granuloma with central degenerated collagen, interspersed polymorphonuclear leukocytes, and leukocytoclastic debris; the focal basophilic necrosis pattern does not show palisading granuloma. We report two cases of Churg Strauss granuloma with different histopathological patterns. ( info)

5/239. Childhood churg-strauss syndrome.

    churg-strauss syndrome or allergic granulomatosis and angiitis is a vasculitis that is found in adults, but is extremely rare in children. We describe a 14-year-old boy who presented with prolonged fever, weight loss, sinusitis, myalgia and arthralgia, testicular pain, pulmonary infiltrations, pericardial effusion, peripheral neuropathy, and eosinophilia. Muscle biopsy showed necrotizing arteritis with eosinophil infiltration. His clinical course was complicated by several seizures secondary to cerebral vasculitis and severe asthma, resulting in death. The clinical features and outcomes of childhood churg-strauss syndrome are reviewed. ( info)

6/239. IgA glomerulonephritis associated with microscopic polyangiitis or Churg-Strauss syndrome.

    When renal insufficiency occurs in classical antineutrophil cytoplasm antibody- (ANCA) associated vasculitides, histological examination usually finds pauci-immune focal segmental glomerulonephritis. We report on 2 cases of histologically proven necrotizing vasculitis associated with IgA nephropathy. Concomitant vasculitis and IgA nephropathy has only rarely been reported but this joint occurrence may not be coincidental as its pathophysiology is not known. Among vasculitides, IgA nephropathy has more frequently been associated with Henoch-Schoenlein purpura: one microscopic polyangiitis unusual because the patient simultaneously presented ANCA and microaneurysms, and the other churg-strauss syndrome associated with mild renal insufficiency. This uncommon association might represent a possible overlap syndrome between these ANCA-associated vasculitides and IgA nephropathy or simply a new type of glomerulonephritis that must be taken into account in these vasculitides. ( info)

7/239. Leukotriene modifiers and churg-strauss syndrome: adverse effect or response to corticosteroid withdrawal?

    Zafirlukast, montelukast and pranlukast are all cysteinyl leukotriene receptor antagonists that have recently been approved for the treatment of asthma. Within 6 months of zafirlukast being made available on the market, 8 patients who received the agent for moderate to severe asthma developed eosinophilia, pulmonary infiltrates, cardiomyopathy and other signs of vasculitis; the syndrome that these patients developed was characteristic of the churg-strauss syndrome. All of the patients had discontinued systemic corticosteroid use within 3 months of presentation and all developed the syndrome within 4 months of zafirlukast initiation. The syndrome dramatically improved in each patient upon reinitiation of corticosteroid therapy. Since the initial report, there have been multiple similar cases reported to the relevant pharmaceutical companies and to federal drug regulatory agencies in association with zafirlukast as well as with pranlukast, montelukast, and with use of high doses of inhaled corticosteroids, thus leading to an increased incidence rate of the churg-strauss syndrome. Many potential mechanisms for the association between these drugs and the churg-strauss syndrome have been postulated including: increased syndrome reporting due to bias; potential for allergic drug reaction; and leukotriene imbalance resulting from leukotriene receptor blockade. However, careful analysis of all reported cases suggests that the churg-strauss syndrome develops primarily in those patients taking these asthma medications who had an underlying eosinophilic disorder that was being masked by corticosteroid treatment and unmasked by novel asthma medication-mediated corticosteroid withdrawal, similar to the forme fruste of the churg-strauss syndrome. It remains unclear what the exact mechanism for this syndrome is and whether this represents an absolute increase in cases of vasculitis, but it appears that none of the asthma medications implicated in leading to the development of churg-strauss syndrome was directly causative of the syndrome. These agents remain well tolerated and effective medications for the treatment of asthma, although physicians must be wary for the signs and symptoms of the churg-strauss syndrome, particularly in patients with moderate to severe asthma in whom corticosteroids are tapered. ( info)

8/239. Anti-adhesion molecule therapy as an interventional strategy for autoimmune inflammation.

    Functional inactivation of leukocyte adhesion molecules has been used to intervene in the development of tissue injury in experimental models of postperfusion infarction as well as autoimmune inflammation. We investigated the use of humanized monoclonal antibodies (mAb) against CD18 in the treatment of five patients with vasculitic tissue injury sufficient to threaten infarction or gangrene. The treatment was monitored in three ways: (i) whole-body gamma camera scintiscanning of autologous indium-labeled PMN, (ii) an index of the therapeutic inhibition of adhesion derived from comparison pre, during, and post mAb treatment of the ability of patients' PMN to be aggregated after activation by fMLP, and (iii) flow cytometric analysis of PMN CD18 expression. Four of five patients given anti-CD18 at 20 mg/day for up to 3 weeks showed prompt clinical improvement, with healing of the ulceration and restoration of limb function within 4 weeks, which was sustained. The fifth patient, who was not doing well clinically, decided to withdraw from all active treatment: at autopsy there was no evidence of the underlying vasculitis evident pretreatment. Our findings suggest that anti-adhesion molecule treatment might be an effective immediate treatment in severe vasculitis especially when tissue viability is threatened by progressive infarction and/or development of gangrene. ( info)

9/239. Seven cases of complete and incomplete forms of churg-strauss syndrome not related to leukotriene receptor antagonists.

    BACKGROUND: Various forms of churg-strauss syndrome have been reported in association with the use of leukotriene receptor antagonists in asthmatic patients. OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to increase awareness that different forms of the churg-strauss syndrome occur in patients not receiving leukotriene modifiers. methods: We searched for all the cases of churg-strauss syndrome that were seen in the University of Rochester Medical Center, new york, in the past 4 years. RESULTS: We identified 7 patients, 6 of whom fulfilled the American College of rheumatology criteria for the classification of churg-strauss syndrome. None of them used leukotriene receptor antagonists. All had asthma and sinus disease. The duration and severity of their asthma varied considerably. In the majority of the patients the features of churg-strauss syndrome became obvious as the systemic corticosteroid dose was being tapered or discontinued, although 3 patients had not been receiving maintenance oral corticosteroids at disease onset. Three patients had positive antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies test result (perinuclear pattern). There was histologic documentation of vasculitis in 4 patients. Five of 7 patients responded to high-dose corticosteroid treatment. CONCLUSION: Our 7 cases are similar to the various forms of churg-strauss syndrome that have been reported in association with the leukotriene receptor antagonists. Complete or incomplete forms of this syndrome can become apparent in asthmatic patients as systemic corticosteroids are being tapered but can also occur in patients with mild asthma of short duration who use only inhaled corticosteroids. ( info)

10/239. Cardiac involvement and left ventricular failure in a patient with the churg-strauss syndrome.

    The churg-strauss syndrome is characterised by a history of asthma and paranasal sinus disease, eosinophilia of more than 10 per cent, non-fixed pulmonary infiltrates on chest radiography and vasculitis which may affect multiple organ systems. The condition usually manifests in the 4th decade. We present a 21-year old female with a history of asthma since one year of age who developed symptoms and signs of pneumonia, a pulmonary infiltrate on chest radiography and eosinophilia. This was followed a few weeks later by vasculitis which affected the skin and myocardium and associated with a peripheral eosinophilia of more than 80%. physical examination revealed palpable purpura and signs of left ventricular failure. echocardiography confirmed significant diminution of left ventricular contractility. A rapid improvement was observed after steroid therapy. echocardiography after two months showed normal left ventricular function. In this presentation we review the cardiac manifestations of the churg-strauss syndrome and its management. ( info)
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