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1/51. anisocoria associated with the medical treatment of irritable bowel syndrome.

    A case of anisocoria associated with oral pharmacologic treatment of irritable bowel syndrome is reported. A 26-year-old woman developed sudden onset of anisocoria and compromised accommodation that lasted 2 days after the use of oral scopolamine methylbromide for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. The anisocoria and compromised accommodation occurred after contamination of the ocular surface after administration of scopolamine methylbromide and resolved within 1 week without further contamination. Oral preparations used for the pharmacologic treatment of irritable bowel syndrome can cause anisocoria due to anticholinergic pharmacologic blockade of the iris sphincter muscle. ( info)

2/51. Ischemic colitis during treatment with alosetron.

    irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common entities observed by both primary care physicians and gastroenterologists. Alosetron is a potent and selective serotonin antagonist that recently became the first food and Drug Administration-approved agent for diarrhea-predominant IBS. However, since approval, significant side effects have been noted with the use of alosetron including severe constipation, fecal impaction, and ischemic colitis. We describe a case of ischemic colitis in a male patient with IBS who was briefly treated with alosetron. Clinical, endoscopic, and pathologic features of the focal colitis strongly suggested ischemia. Symptoms correlated temporally with alosetron use, and symptoms abated with discontinuation of the drug. Endoscopic and pathologic resolution of the colitis were documented. ( info)

3/51. University of Miami Division of Clinical pharmacology therapeutic rounds: irritable bowel syndrome-pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment.

    irritable bowel syndrome, or IBS, is a common disorder of the bowels that causes significant patient morbidity, work-absenteeism, physician visits, and, frequently, extensive evaluations. The syndrome has been classified as a functional disorder because of the lack of clearly elucidated pathophysiology, although altered visceral sensitivity, intestinal motility, and psychosocial factors all likely play a role. Treatment includes fostering a strong, trusting relationship with the patient, with pharmacotherapy directed at the predominant symptoms. The authors review the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of this difficult disorder. ( info)

4/51. Direct clinical evidence for spinal hyperalgesia in a patient with irritable bowel syndrome.

    OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to evaluate GI motor and sensory function and spinal cord testing in a patient with severe irritable bowel syndrome. methods: A patient is described who underwent an extensive assessment of GI motor and sensory function including transit studies, colonic and rectal barostat studies, sensory and manometric studies of the small bowel, and colon and anorectal physiology testing. The patient also underwent testing with spinal cord stimulation and spinal drug delivery as part of a pain management assessment. RESULTS: The viscerosomatic referral pain pattern resulting from rectal distention was consistent with spinal hyperalgesia. The patient underwent testing for spinal cord stimulation and spinal drug delivery. CONCLUSION: This novel finding provides direct clinical evidence for the presence of spinal hyperalgesia in a patient with irritable bowel syndrome, consistent with the existing indirect clinical evidence and animal data. ( info)

5/51. The irritable bowel syndrome in the urban South African Negro.

    The 'irritable bowel syndrome' is a disorder of civilisation, in which a low-residue fibre-deficient diet is probably the major aetiological factor. This is illustrated by the first 2 Black patients presenting with this syndrome. They represent a population which has only recently changed from a rural to an urban way of life. ( info)

6/51. Total colonic manometry as a guide for surgical management of functional colonic obstruction: Preliminary results.

    BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Functional colonic obstruction (pseudo-obstruction) encompasses a broad group of motility disorders. Medical management of colonic pseudo-obstruction is complex and often fails, leading to surgical referral. In most cases (excepting Hirschsprung's disease) the surgeon is unable to precisely localize the area of functional obstruction. Total colonic manometry can directly measure intraluminal pressures and contractile function along the entire length of the colon. The authors propose that total colonic manometry can be used by the pediatric surgeon to guide the timing and extent of surgical therapy in refractory functional colonic obstruction. methods: Four patients were evaluated for functional colonic obstruction. All underwent barium enema and rectal biopsy with a diagnosis of Hirschsprung's disease in one patient. All patients underwent colonoscopy and total colonic manometry. Manometric tracings were obtained while fasting, after feeding, and after pharmacologic stimulation both preoperatively (n = 4) and postoperatively (n = 3). RESULTS: Total colonic manometry identified an abrupt end of normal peristalsis in 2 of the non-Hirschsprung's patients (one in the proximal colon and one in the transverse colon). Medical therapy failed in both of these patients, and they underwent diverting ostomy proximal to the loss of normal peristalsis. The third non-Hirschsprung's patient essentially had normal manometry and was able to have her colon decompressed successfully on a laxative regimen. Repeat manometry after colonic decompression showed return of normal peristalsis in 2 of these patients and continued abnormal peristaltic activity in the third. Definitive surgical intervention based on the results of total colonic manometry was performed on the latter. All 3 patients achieved normal continence. A fourth patient had Hirschsprung's disease confirmed by rectal biopsy and underwent a 1-stage neonatal modified Duhamel procedure, which was complicated by postoperative functional obstruction. manometry showed a lack of peristaltic function beginning in the right colon. An ileostomy was performed, and timing of ileostomy closure was guided by the return of normal colonic peristalsis seen on manometry. CONCLUSIONS: These initial cases show the utility of total colonic manometry in the management of colonic pseudo-obstruction syndromes. In addition to its diagnostic utility, direct measurement of colonic motor activity can be valuable in deciding the need for and timing of diversion, the extent of resection, and the suitability of the patient for restoring bowel continuity. In Hirschsprung's disease, total colonic manometry can potentially be used to determine suitability for primary neonatal pull-through versus a staged approach. J Pediatr Surg 36:1757-1763. ( info)

7/51. irritable bowel syndrome.

    irritable bowel syndrome is a biopsychosocial disorder characterized by dysregulation of intestinal motor, sensory, and central nervous system functions. It is associated with significant disability and health-care costs. The traditional diagnostic approach leads to excessive investigation for many patients. A reductionist approach of focusing on evaluation and treatment of a single mechanism is unlikely to prove effective. Identification of the characteristic symptom pattern is the key to cost-effective management. A strong patient-physician relationship is essential for a successful outcome. Optimal outcome is predicated on an individualized treatment plan that integrates pharmacologic and behavioral modalities. ( info)

8/51. Hypnotherapy and refractory irritable bowel syndrome: a single case study.

    The current study describes the successful administration of hypnotherapy with a subject suffering from refractory irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD). The subject had suffered from IBS for 30 years and had unsuccessfully pursued multiple psychological treatments, both traditional and non-traditional. He was referred to the Center for Stress and anxiety disorders and commenced hypnotherapy directed primarily at the IBS symptoms. After 6 treatment sessions, his IBS symptomatology had improved 53%. He stopped treatment at that point and continued autohypnosis with the aid of treatment audiotapes provided by his therapist. Follow-up at 6 months indicated continued improvement (70%). A 2-year follow-up revealed an improvement of 38% in IBS symptomatology. Concurrent levels of depression and anxiety had also substantially decreased. Hypnotherapy is shown to be a viable, palatable, and enduring treatment option for an individual who had been refractory to many previous therapies. ( info)

9/51. The treatment of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth with enteric-coated peppermint oil: a case report.

    Recent investigations have shown that bacterial overgrowth of the small intestine is associated with a number of functional somatic disorders, including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), fibromyalgia, and chronic fatigue syndrome. A number of controlled studies have shown that enteric-coated peppermint oil (ECPO) is of benefit in the treatment of IBS. However, despite evidence of strong antimicrobial activity, ECPO has not been specifically investigated for an effect on small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). A case report of a patient with SIBO who showed marked subjective improvement in IBS-like symptoms and significant reductions in hydrogen production after treatment with ECPO is presented. While further investigation is necessary, the results in this case suggest one of the mechanisms by which ECPO improves IBS symptoms is antimicrobial activity in the small intestine. ( info)

10/51. Alterations of brain activity associated with resolution of emotional distress and pain in a case of severe irritable bowel syndrome.

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: The association of psychosocial disturbances with more severe irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is well recognized. However, there is no evidence as to how these associations might be mediated. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) offers an opportunity to study whether activation of the cingulate cortex, an area involved with the affective and pain intensity coding might be linked to poorer clinical status with IBS. In this case report, we found an association between the severity of a patient's clinical symptoms and psychosocial state, with activation of the cingulate cortex. We also found that clinical and psychosocial improvement was associated with reduced cingulate activation. methods: Observational case report of a young woman observed for 16 years with a history of sexual abuse, psychosocial distress, and functional GI complaints. Psychosocial, clinical, and fMRI assessment was performed when the patient experienced severe symptoms and again 8 months later when clinically improved. RESULTS: During severe illness, the patient had major psychosocial impairment, high life stress, a low visceral pain threshold, and activation of the midcingulate cortex (MCC), prefrontal area 6/44, and the somatosensory cortex, areas associated with pain intensity encoding. When clinically improved, there was resolution in activation of these 3 areas, and this was associated with psychosocial improvement and an increased threshold to rectal distention. CONCLUSIONS: Activation of the MCC and related areas involved with visceral pain encoding are associated with poor clinical status in patients with severe IBS and psychosocial distress and appear to be responsive to clinical improvement. ( info)
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