Cases reported "Craniocerebral Trauma"

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1/1221. diabetes insipidus caused by craniofacial trauma.

    A patient is presented with diabetes insipidus secondary to craniofacial trauma. diabetes insipidus can occur in any patient within ten days of craniofacial trauma. Even the masked disease in the unconscious patient can be diagnosed by observation of intake and output, urinary specific gravities, and appropriate chemical studies. The disease can recur following operative reduction of facial fractures. diabetes insipidus can be successfully treated by intramuscular Pitressin and appropriate fluid intake. ( info)

2/1221. Internuclear ophthalmoplegia following minor head injury: a case report.

    Internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO) is a common sign of multiple sclerosis in young patients and of vascular diseases in older people. Traumatic bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia following severe head injuries may occur. We present the unusual case of a young patient suffered from bilateral INO as an isolated finding after a minor head injury, without other signs of brain stem or cortical injury. The ophthalmoplegia has persisted for 22 months. ( info)

3/1221. Technique of removal of an impacted sharp object in a penetrating head injury using the lever principle.

    Penetrating head injuries can be difficult to manage as the extensive surgery which may be required can result in severe morbidity and mortality in some patients. A conservative surgical approach with a "pull and see" policy was adopted successfully in a described case. Extraction can be achieved by using the mechanical advantage of the lever principle. By this method while removing the object any movements of sharp edges which will cause secondary damage can be reduced to a minimum. ( info)

4/1221. Successful treatment of traumatic acute posterior fossa subdural hematoma: report of two cases.

    BACKGROUND: Acute traumatic subdural hematoma of the posterior cranial fossa after a closed-head injury, excluding those in newborns, is a very rare clinical event. Generally, the outcome is poor and the overall mortality rate is high. methods: Acute posttraumatic subdural hematomas of the posterior fossa associated with acute hydrocephalus in two patients were removed by standard suboccipital approach. Preoperatively, one patient was in a coma and the Glasgow coma Score was 9 in another. CT scans showed obliterated mesencephalic cisterns in both cases. In the former there was a complex posterior fossa lesion, i.e., combined subdural and intracerebellar hematoma. The surgical decompression was completed 3 and 11 hours after injury, respectively. Intraoperative tapping of the lateral ventricle through a burr hole in the occipital area was performed in the latter case. RESULTS: Both patients survived; one made a good recovery, (i.e., glasgow outcome scale 4 in a patient who was comatose on admission), the other did not do as well (GOS 3). CONCLUSIONS: Our experience justifies the policy of mandatory early operation in cases of traumatic acute subdural hematoma of the posterior fossa associated with poor neurologic condition, even in patients of advanced age. In patients with obliterated mesencephalic cisterns and/or complex posterior fossa lesions the same approach must be followed. These clinical and CT features are not necessarily predictors of a poor outcome. ( info)

5/1221. Accidental decapitation: an unusual injury to a passenger in a vehicle.

    A case of decapitation of a vehicle passenger in an accident on a highway is reported. Evaluation of roadside evidence and the deceased's injuries revealed that the victim was partially ejected from a broken passenger-side window as the vehicle spun out of control, decapitation being due to the impact of his head against a barrier stanchion on the shoulder of the road. An unfastened seat-belt, high-speed driving and the construction of the road barrier were contributory factors. ( info)

6/1221. Chronic spinal subdural haematoma associated with intracranial subdural haematoma: CT and MRI.

    Chronic spinal subdural haematoma is a uncommon. We describe the CT and MRI appearances of chronic spinal and intracranial subdural haematomas following minor trauma. The aetiology, pathogenesis and differential diagnosis are discussed. ( info)

7/1221. Post-traumatic pituitary apoplexy--two case reports.

    A 60-year-old female and a 66-year-old male presented with post-traumatic pituitary apoplexy associated with clinically asymptomatic pituitary macroadenoma manifesting as severe visual disturbance that had not developed immediately after the head injury. skull radiography showed a unilateral linear occipital fracture. magnetic resonance imaging revealed pituitary tumor with dumbbell-shaped suprasellar extension and fresh intratumoral hemorrhage. Transsphenoidal surgery was performed in the first patient, and the visual disturbance subsided. decompressive craniectomy was performed in the second patient to treat brain contusion and part of the tumor was removed to decompress the optic nerves. The mechanism of post-traumatic pituitary apoplexy may occur as follows. The intrasellar part of the tumor is fixed by the bony structure forming the sella, and the suprasellar part is free to move, so a rotational force acting on the occipital region on one side will create a shearing strain between the intra- and suprasellar part of the tumor, resulting in pituitary apoplexy. Recovery of visual function, no matter how severely impaired, can be expected if an emergency operation is performed to decompress the optic nerves. Transsphenoidal surgery is the most advantageous procedure, as even partial removal of the tumor may be adequate to decompress the optic nerves in the acute stage. Staged transsphenoidal surgery is indicated to achieve total removal later. ( info)

8/1221. Camouflage in head and neck region--a non-invasive option for skin lesions.

    The technique of camouflage, a non-invasive procedure to correct flaws in the texture and colour of the facial skin, is presented. The acceptance and use of camouflaging by 52 patients with different diagnoses are presented. The advantages of camouflaging are discussed in comparison to medical tattooing. ( info)

9/1221. The role of cranial MRI in identifying patients suffering from child abuse and presenting with unexplained neurological findings.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to demonstrate the usefulness of cerebral MRI to detect possible child abuse in children with unexplained neurologic findings. METHOD: Between 1990 and 1997, 208 children were referred for suspected physical child abuse to the Child Protection Clinic of Ste-Justine Hospital, a tertiary care pediatric hospital. Among them, 39 children presented initially with neurological findings. For 27 of them, the CT Scan results prompted the diagnosis of child abuse. However, in 12 children, even if a CT-Scan was performed, the diagnosis and/or the mechanisms of the neurologic distress remained obscure. Investigation was completed with MRI study in those 12 cases. RESULTS: MRI findings were diagnostic for physical abuse in eight cases. A diagnosis of child abuse was made in two more cases by a combination of MRI and skeletal survey findings. In one case, MRI was suggestive but the diagnosis of child abuse could not be confirmed. One case was misinterpreted as normal. CONCLUSIONS: MRI is the test of choice to rule out child abuse when faced with a child presenting unexplained neurologic signs lasting for few days. The fact that MRI can better differentiate collections of different ages makes this imaging test particularly useful in identifying cases of child abuse. These results, however, always have to be integrated in a well conducted multidisciplinary clinical approach. ( info)

10/1221. Post-traumatic anterior pituitary insufficiency developed in a patient with partial lipodystrophy.

    A case of partial lipodystrophy developing anterior pituitary insufficiency, chronic glomerulonephritis and pulmonary fibrosis was reported. The patient died of respiratory failure secondary to pituitary crisis during the hospital course. From the clinical course in recent several years and the postmortem examination the head injury following car accident in the past history was considered to be the most plausible cause of hypopituitarism. The etiology of pulmonary fibrosis remained unresolved. ( info)
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