Cases reported "Craniosynostoses"

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1/411. Chromosome 7 short arm deletion and craniosynostosis. A 7p-syndrome.

    A patient with craniosynostosis and a small deletion of part of the short arm of chromosome 7 is described. A review of the literature indicates that craniosynostosis has occurred in at least four of the five infants (the fifth having microcephaly) affected by structural changes (resulting in deletion) within the terminal region of the short arm of chromosome 7. ( info)

2/411. Raised intracranial pressure in minimal forms of craniosynostosis.

    Most cases of craniosynostosis are diagnosed during early infancy, but occasionally craniosynostosis evolves with minimal cranial involvement and goes unnoticed until late childhood. Seemingly these mild forms of craniosynostosis cause few, if any, symptoms of neurological involvement. We describe the cases of a 9-year-old girl and a 6-year-old boy who presented with evident signs of raised intracranial pressure (ICP), together with a negligible skull deformity. We have termed these cases as occult craniosynostosis. Differential diagnosis in our patients was established against known causes of benign intracranial hypertension. Bilateral expanding craniotomies afforded total relief from the symptoms and signs of raised ICP. Neurosurgeons treating children with symptoms and signs of benign intracranial hypertension should be aware of the possibility of minimal forms of craniosynostosis evolving with marked manifestations of raised ICP. ( info)

3/411. Craniosynostosis associated with ectopia lentis in monozygotic twin sisters.

    ectopia lentis has rarely been reported to occur in association with craniosynostosis, and this was found only in sporadic cases. We report on twin sisters who underwent surgery for craniosynostosis and later on, at age 3 years, were found to have bilateral ectopia lentis. Molecular studies yielded a probability of monozygosity of more than 0.98. Inheritance of the syndrome may be autosomal dominant, possibly due to a new mutation, autosomal recessive, or X-linked with male lethality. ( info)

4/411. Musculoskeletal manifestations of the Antley-Bixler syndrome.

    The Antley-Bixler syndrome is a rare disorder with many musculoskeletal anomalies that demand orthopedic assessment. The syndrome includes skeletal, craniofacial, and urogenital anomalies. The most common skeletal deformities are radiohumeral synostosis, craniosynostosis, multiple joint contractures, and arachnodactyly. Other orthopedic manifestations that may occur are femoral bowing, ulnar bowing, camptodactyly, synostoses of carpal and tarsal bones, clubfoot, vertebral body anomalies, perinatal fractures, and advanced skeletal age. The inheritance pattern is thought to be autosomal recessive. A patient with this syndrome is described, which is the 18th of 24 reports published in the world literature. This case is compared with the other reported cases. ( info)

5/411. Hypocalvaria associated with intrauterine growth retardation, facial dysmorphism, congenital heart disease and camptomelia.

    We report an Omani child from an inbred family with a combination of hypocalvaria, intrauterine growth retardation, craniofacial disproportion, partial synostosis of the right coronal suture and a small mandible associated with congenital heart defect and bowing of the limbs. A literature search failed to reveal a similar case. ( info)

6/411. Management of the ventricular shunt in posterior deformities of the skull in craniosynostosis.

    The existence of an occipitoparietal cerebrospinal fluid shunt complicates the attempt to remodel posterior skull deformities in craniosynostosis. A composite method to reposition the shunt hardware is described and discussed. ( info)

7/411. Cloverleaf skull anomaly with extreme orbitostenosis.

    A neonate presented with cloverleaf skull anomaly and severe proptosis requiring urgent cranioplasty to attain eyelid closure. Despite this, she experienced exposure keratitis and corneal perforations. A ventriculoperitoneal shunt was performed subsequently to relieve hydrocephalus, but respiratory problems eventually led to her death at 6 months. This case highlights the complexity of the problems encountered in the cloverleaf skull anomaly, and a brief review discussing its management is included. Despite improvements in treatment of this condition, the overall prognosis remains poor. ( info)

8/411. Fetal craniofacial structure and intracranial morphology in a case of Apert syndrome.

    Apert syndrome is characterized by craniosynostosis, midfacial hypoplasia and bilateral syndactyly. We document in detail the intrauterine natural history of Apert syndrome by serial sonographic examination. Ultrasound examination of a 19-week fetus revealed an abnormal appearance of the skull. The subsequent examination including transvaginal brain scanning demonstrated a deformed occipital part of the cerebrum and lateral ventricles, frontal bossing, a low nasal bridge and an abnormal appearance of the fetal hands and feet. The distortion of the fetal profile became progressively worse with advancing gestation. Towards the end of pregnancy, anterior prominence of the cerebrum, ventricles and corpus callosum was demonstrated and mild non-progressive ventriculomegaly was seen. The female 3152-g newborn with the typical facial appearance of Apert syndrome, bilateral syndactyly of the fingers and toes and isolated cleft palate was delivered at 37 weeks. Postnatal three-dimensional computed tomography scan demonstrated the fusion of the coronal suture and a wide mid-line calvarial defect, and cranial magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the prenatal sonographic findings. Although the karyotype was normal, genomic dna analysis of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 revealed Ser252Trp, which is specified in the mutational basis of Apert syndrome. The time course of the prenatal findings in this case may help increase understanding of the intrauterine natural history of Apert syndrome. ( info)

9/411. Congenital torticollis in association with craniosynostosis.

    The incidence of congenital torticollis in association with plagiocephaly is 1 in 300 newborns, with the torticollis resulting from pathologically sustained contraction of the sternocleidomastoid. Such conditions as facial asymmetries, craniovertebral anomalies, cervical hemivertebra, and mono- or polydysostoses may also be associated with torticollis diagnosed during the neonatal period. With particular reference to synostotic (coronal and/or lambdoidal) plagiocephaly, a clear distinction is made in this paper between posterior neurocranial flattening secondary to the sustained rotation of the skull resulting from torticollis and that seen in synostotic plagiocephaly. The rarity of torticollis with sustained contraction of the sternocleidomastoid muscle relative to the frequency of occipital-parietal flattening in newborn kept in the supine position has not been discussed in the literature and is therefore of clinical importance. In light of the fact that the prognosis and, consequently, the treatment plan vary directly with the presence or absence of synostoses, clinical evaluation also includes cephalometrics, plain skull x-rays, and CT imaging. If the torticollis is associated with neurocranial deformity but synostosis is absent, cervical traction and physiotherapy resolve the symptoms. When, however, the clinical picture is complicated by synostotic plagiocephaly, corrective surgery is necessary, though cervical traction and physiotherapy are essential to provide early and complete cure of the torticollis. ( info)

10/411. Ocular anterior chamber dysgenesis in craniosynostosis syndromes with a fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 mutation.

    Fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) mutations have been found in craniosynostosis syndromes with and without limb and/or dermatologic anomalies. Ocular manifestations of FGFR2 syndromes are reported to include shallow orbits, proptosis, strabismus, and hypertelorism, but no ocular anterior chamber, structural abnormalities have been reported until now. We evaluated three unrelated patients with severe Crouzon or Pfeiffer syndrome. Two of them had ocular findings consistent with Peters anomaly, and the third patient had opaque corneae, thickened irides and ciliary bodies, and shallow anterior chambers with occluded angles. Craniosynostosis with and without cloverleaf skull deformity, large anterior fontanelle, hydrocephalus, proptosis, depressed nasal bridge, choanal stenosis/ atresia, midface hypoplasia, and elbow contractures were also present. These patients had airway compromise, seizures, and two died by age 15 months. All three cases were found to have the same FGFR2 Ser351Cys (1231C to G) mutation predicted to form an aberrant disulfide bond(s) and affect ligand binding. Seven patients with isolated Peters anomaly, two patients with Peters plus syndrome, and three cases with typical Antley-Bixler syndrome were screened for this mutation, but none was found. These phenotype/genotype data demonstrate that FGFR2 is involved in the development of the anterior chamber of the eye and that the Ser351Cys mutation is associated with a severe phenotype and clinical course. ( info)
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