Cases reported "Cross Infection"

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1/757. Fatal serratia marcescens meningitis and myocarditis in a patient with an indwelling urinary catheter.

    serratia marcescens is commonly isolated from the urine of patients with an indwelling urinary catheter and in the absence of symptoms is often regarded as a contaminant. A case of fatal serratia marcescens septicaemia with meningitis, brain abscesses, and myocarditis discovered at necropsy is described. The patient was an 83 year old man with an indwelling urinary catheter who suffered from several chronic medical conditions and from whose urine serratia marcescens was isolated at the time of catheterisation. serratia marcescens can be a virulent pathogen in particular groups of patients and when assessing its significance in catheter urine specimens, consideration should be given to recognised risk factors such as old age, previous antibiotic treatment, and underlying chronic or debilitating disease, even in the absence of clinical symptoms. ( info)

2/757. Recognizing and managing clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea.

    clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea poses a significant physical risk and cost to the recovery of hospitalized older adults. C. difficile is responsible for 75% or more of the diarrhea-associated enteric infections acquired during a hospital stay (Gerding, Johnson, Peterson, Mulligan, & Silva, 1995). C. difficile is easily spread by direct or indirect contact, therefore placing other patients at great risk for contamination by this organism. nursing plays a significant role in early identification, management, and control of the spread of this potentially lethal infection. ( info)

3/757. clostridium difficile-associated disease. Implications for midwifery practice.

    clostridium difficile-associated disease (CDAD), a gastrointestinal infection with a wide range of manifestations whose primary symptom is diarrhea, occurs when antibiotic medications, or rarely other drugs or conditions, disrupt the normal colonic microflora, making it susceptible to the growth of toxigenic C difficile. It is a significant nosocomial infection and an increased incidence has been noted in recent years. Although infrequently seen in midwifery practices, it does occur and may increase with the growing usage of intrapartal antibiotics. Midwives may evaluate and treat a client with an initial episode of mild to moderate CDAD; they also may manage collaboratively or refer for medical management those clients with recurrent or severe disease. This article reviews the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, prevention, and midwifery management of initial and recurrent CDAD. The limitation in the use of oral vancomycin due to the emergence of vancomycin-resistant enterococcus, resulting in metronidazole becoming the primary agent for treatment of CDAD, and the implications of this in the treatment of CDAD during pregnancy and lactation are addressed. ( info)

4/757. Prospective study of nosocomial fungal meningitis in children--report of 10 cases.

    Within an 8-year period, 10 cases of fungal nosocomial meningitis in children 0-13 y old were prospectively identified, 3 caused by yeasts other than Candida spp. (rhodotorula rubra, Aureobasidium mansoni, Clavispora lusitaniae) and 7 by candida albicans. Seven patients survived. whereas 3 neonates with fungal meningitis (all due to C. albicans) died. risk factors for fungal nosocomial meningitis included cancer (2 children), previous neurosurgery (2 children), cranial trauma (1 case) and prematurity with low birthweight (5 cases). All patients except 1 had received broad-spectrum antibiotics before onset of meningitis. In addition to yeasts, bacteria were isolated from CSF of 4 children. One child had additional fungaemia. Univariate analysis was used to compare 10 cases of fungal to 91 cases of bacterial nosocomial meningitis. Except for concurrent bacteraemia, (60 vs 25.3%, P < 0.03), which was more frequently observed among fungal meningitis, there were no significant differences in risk factors, sequelae or outcome (mortality) between patients with fungal vs bacterial meningitis. A review of fungal meningitis reported within the last 20 y is included. ( info)

5/757. The emergence of decreased susceptibility to vancomycin in staphylococcus epidermidis.

    BACKGROUND: coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are the major cause of nosocomial bloodstream infection. Emergence of vancomycin resistance among CNS is a serious public health concern, because CNS usually are multidrug-resistant, and glycopeptide antibiotics, among which only vancomycin is available in the United States, are the only remaining effective therapy. In this report, we describe the first bloodstream infection in the united states associated with a staphylococcus epidermidis strain with decreased susceptibility to vancomycin. methods: We reviewed the hospital's microbiology records for all CNS strains, reviewed the patient's medical and laboratory records, and obtained all available CNS isolates with decreased susceptibility to vancomycin. Blood cultures were processed and CNS isolates identified by using standard methods; antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by using minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and disk-diffusion methods. Nares cultures were obtained from exposed healthcare workers (HCWs) to identify possible colonization by CNS with decreased susceptibility to vancomycin. RESULTS: The bloodstream infection by an S. epidermidis strain with decreased susceptibility to vancomycin occurred in a 49-year-old woman with carcinoma. She had two blood cultures positive for CNS; both isolates were S. epidermidis. Although susceptible to vancomycin by the disk-diffusion method (16-17 mm), the isolates were intermediate by MIC (8-6 microg/mL). The patient had received an extended course of vancomycin therapy; she died of her underlying disease. No HCW was colonized by CNS with decreased susceptibility to vancomycin. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report in the united states of bloodstream infection due to S. epidermidis with decreased susceptibility to vancomycin. Contact precautions likely played a role in preventing nosocomial transmission of this strain, and disk-diffusion methods may be inadequate to detect CNS with decreased susceptibility to vancomycin. ( info)

6/757. citrobacter koseri meningitis in a special care baby unit.

    An outbreak of meningitis due to citrobacter koseri in a special care baby unit is described. The organism showed a high capacity for spread among the babies on the unit and although the intestinal carriage rate was high, the clinical case:carrier ratio was low. ( info)

7/757. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing klebsiella pneumoniae in a Dublin paediatric hospital.

    klebsiella pneumoniae resistant to third-generation cephalosporins and gentamicin was isolated from two patients in a paediatric intensive care unit within a two-week period. The double-disc diffusion test indicated the presence of an extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL). The unit was closed to admissions, and stringent infection control procedures were implemented. Environmental screening and screening of staff and patients on the unit were commenced. Two weeks later, K. pneumoniae with an identical antibiogram was isolated from the urine of a patient in a different ward. Blood-culture isolates possessed the K16 antigen, while the urine isolate was non-typeable. The isolates were shown to be similar when banding patterns of XbaI chromosomal dna digests were compared. The resistance to the extended-spectrum cephalosporins was shown to be transferable in association with a large plasmid > 98 mDa. Resistance to gentamicin always co-transferred with beta-lactamase resistance and appeared to be encoded by the same plasmid. ( info)

8/757. serratia marcescens pseudobacteraemia in neonates associated with a contaminated blood glucose/lactate analyzer confirmed by molecular typing.

    Three episodes of serratia marcescens pseudobacteraemia occurred on a neonatal intensive care unit. Following the first two cases, one full term and one pre-term infant, the source was identified as a glucose/lactate analyzer. Blood culture and environmental isolates of the organisms involved were indistinguishable when subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of Spe 1 digests and PCR ribotyping. Failure to recognize pseudobacteraemia in neonates results in inappropriate therapy for the individual and increased antibiotic pressures on the unit. attention to the possibility of cross infection when using automated analyzers is required to minimize the risks of true or pseudoinfection to patients. ( info)

9/757. Neonatal suppurative parotitis: a study of five cases.

    Suppurative parotitis is uncommon in newborns. During a 9-year study period, five cases of neonatal suppurative parotitis were detected in 3,624 hospital admissions. The relative risk of developing neonatal suppurative parotitis in admitted infants was 5.52 (0.62-49.35). staphylococcus aureus was the causative organism most commonly detected in the hospital-acquired cases. Antimicrobial therapy was effective in all cases; surgery was not required. CONCLUSION: Although neonatal suppurative parotitis is now uncommon in the newborn, it cannot be considered a "vanishing disease". ( info)

10/757. stenotrophomonas (xanthomonas) maltophilia infection in necrotizing pancreatitis.

    CONCLUSION: Although the therapy of infected pancreatic collections or organized pancreatic necrosis remains surgical, we have demonstrated that infected organized pancreatic necrosis can be treated endoscopically. BACKGROUND: stenotrophomonas (xanthomonas) maltophilia has been increasingly recognized as a nosocomial pathogen associated with meningitis, pneumonia, conjunctivitis, soft tissue infections, endocarditis, and urinary tract infections. This organism is consistently resistant to imipenem, a drug commonly employed in patients with necrotizing pancreatitis to prevent local and systemic infections. methods AND RESULTS: We report the first case of infected pancreatic necrosis by S. (X.) maltophilia. Our patient was treated successfully with endoscopic drainage of the pancreatic fluid collection and appropriate antibiogram-based antibiotic therapy. Endoscopic drainage has emerged as one of the treatment modalities for pancreatic fluid collections. ( info)
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