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1/1519. Adipsic hypernatremia in two patients with AIDS and cytomegalovirus encephalitis.

    In patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), hypoosmolality is frequently observed, whereas hypernatremia is distinctly rare. We report two patients with advanced AIDS and cytomegalovirus (CMV) encephalitis, who developed severe hypernatremia without any thirst sensation, that is, adipsic hypernatremia. Both developed severe hypernatremia of up to 164 and 162 mmol/L, with serum osmolalities of 358 and 344 mOsmol/kg while remaining alert and denying thirst. serum antidiuretic hormone (ADH) levels were 0.9 and 1.5 pg/mL, inappropriately low for the concomitant serum osmolalities. vital signs were stable. During hypernatremia, urine osmolalities were 327 and 340 mOsmol/kg, and urine Na levels were 56 and 119 mmol/L, respectively. Periventricular white matter lesions were seen on cerebral nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI) in case 1, but the pituitary appeared normal in both cases. survival after onset of hypernatremia was 6 and 4 weeks, respectively. autopsy in case 1 showed typical findings of CMV encephalitis but normal pituitary, confirming that infection with hiv or CMV most likely caused the dysfunction of the central osmostat. ( info)

2/1519. Successful treatment with ganciclovir for cytomegalovirus duodenitis following allogenic bone marrow transplantation.

    cytomegalovirus(CMV) disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. CMV enteritis should be considered when nausea and vomiting continue 3 to 4 weeks after bone marrow transplantation(BMT). The treatment of CMV enteritis is not well established. We report a CMV duodenitis patient following allogenic bone marrow transplantation. The patient had prolonged nausea and vomiting for 5 weeks after bone marrow transplantation and CMV duodenitis was diagnosed by the gastroduodenoscopic mucosal biopsy which showed cytomegalic cells. ganciclovir treatment for 3 weeks resulted in the resolution of symptoms and promoted healing of the lesion. The patient was free of CMV infection until 288 days after allogenic BMT without maintenance ganciclovir treatment. ( info)

3/1519. cytomegalovirus associated neonatal pneumonia and Wilson-Mikity syndrome: a causal relationship?

    lung injury caused by intrauterine inflammation has recently been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of Wilson-Mikity syndrome (WMS). This article supports this theory by suggesting a causative role of intrauterine cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection for the development of WMS. A male premature infant, born at 33 weeks of gestational age, developed chronic lung disease compatible with WMS and diagnostic evaluation was positive for CMV infection. High-resolution computed tomography scan and lung histology revealed typical features of WMS in association with signs of interstitial pneumonia. CMV was found in urine, breastmilk, bronchoalveolar lavage material and lung tissue from open lung biopsy. Follow-up after treatment with ganciclovir and steroids showed resolving lung disease at the age of 6, 10 and 16 months, with lung function signs of mild obstruction. Assuming that a chance coexistence of cytomegalovirus pneumonia and Wilson-Mikity syndrome is rather unlikely, it is possible that intrauterine cytomegalovirus infection caused a pattern of lung injury consistent with Wilson-Mikity syndrome. Further cases of Wilson-Mikity syndrome should be investigated as to a possible role of congenital infection. ( info)

4/1519. CD4/CD8 double-positive adult T cell leukemia with preceding cytomegaloviral gastroenterocolitis.

    We present a rare case of adult T cell leukemia (ATL) in which leukemic T cells simultaneously expressed CD4 and CD8 surface antigens and refractory cytomegalovirus (CMV)-induced gastroenterocolitis preceded its clinical onset. A 40-year-old male was admitted to our hospital with abdominal pain and bloody stool. biopsy specimens of the gastric and rectal mucosa indicated CMV-induced gastroenterocolitis. The patient also proved to be seropositive for human T lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I). While being administered gancyclovir for CMV infection, he presented hepatomegaly and systemic lymphadenopathy. Monoclonal expansion of lymphoid cells integrated with HTLV-I genome was observed. He underwent a LSG15 regimen and hepatomegaly and lymphadenopathy improved markedly. Gastroenterocolitis also improved, but the symptoms did not disappear completely. CMV-induced diseases are prevalent among immunosuppressed patients. Although there was no evidence that this patient had ATL on admission, it is likely that he was severely immunodeficient. CMV can easily infect damaged mucosa. ATL cells often infiltrate gastrointestinal mucosa and may have triggered CMV gastroenterocolitis in this case. ( info)

5/1519. Evolution of acute cytomegalovirus gastritis to chronic gastrointestinal dysmotility in a nonimmunocompromised adult.

    A 30-year-old nonimmunocompromised woman developed chronic gastrointestinal dysmotility as a consequence of acute cytomegalovirus infection. The acute nature of the infection was documented by high immunoglobulin m antibody titer to cytomegalovirus (CMV); the chronicity of the infection was shown by persistence of CMV in biopsy specimens of her gastrointestinal tract over a 21/2-year period. Gastrointestinal dysmotility was confirmed by delayed emptying on gastric nuclear scintigraphy, by retrograde propagation of migrating myoelectric complexes on small intestinal manometry, and by presence of tachygastria on cutaneous electrogastrography. The patient's nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and early satiety resolved after a short course of treatment with leuprolide acetate but returned after medication was discontinued. Her symptoms persisted despite clearance of CMV from the gastrointestinal tract after a course of treatment with ganciclovir. These observations show that acute CMV infection can cause gastrointestinal dysmotility in nonimmunocompromised individuals and that the disturbance in gastrointestinal motor function may persist for years after viral infection of the gastrointestinal tract has been eradicated. ( info)

6/1519. Management of opportunistic infections in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. I. Treatment.

    A case report of a patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) is described. The patient presents with a multitude of medical complaints that are of acute or subacute onset. The medical examination of these complaints is described and includes algorithms for the diagnosis and treatment of the most common hiv-related opportunistic infections, including pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, toxoplasmosis, mycobacterium avium complex, cytomegalovirus infection, and cryptococcal meningitis. ( info)

7/1519. mortality associated with concurrent strongyloidosis and cytomegalovirus infection in a patient on steroid therapy.

    Disseminated strongyloidosis has been recognized with increasing frequency, often in patients who are immunocompromised or have received steroid therapy. In addition, disease due to cytomegalovirus (CMV) is noted in immunodeficient hosts. We report on a 55-year-old Puerto Rican man who received steroid treatment for orpharyngeal pemphigus vulgaris and developed abdominal symptoms with alternating constipation and diarrhea. The clinical work-up did not reveal specific abnormalities, but the patient died of cardiopulmonary failure. At the postmortem examination, the patient had evidence of strongyloidosis and CMV disease. This report reviews both this case and the literature, and discusses the overlapping infections of strongyloidosis and CMV disease in this patient who had received steroid therapy. ( info)

8/1519. sarcoidosis with selective involvement of a second liver allograft: report of a case and review of the literature.

    A case of sarcoidosis recurrent in a patient's second liver allograft is described. There was no granulomatous disease seen in the patient's first liver allograft. After the second orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), the patient was successfully treated for acute rejection, aspergillus infection, and cytomegalovirus viremia. Approximately 2 months after the second OLT, the patient was treated with long-term interferon-alpha for recurrent hepatitis c. Five years after the operation, he experienced liver failure secondary to recurrent hepatitis and underwent a third OLT. This is only the second reported case of sarcoidosis recurrent in the liver parenchyma of a transplanted organ and the first in which interferon-alpha might have played a role. ( info)

9/1519. Misdiagnosis of specific cytomegalovirus infection of the ileoanal pouch as refractory idiopathic chronic pouchitis: report of two cases.

    PURPOSE: Chronic nonspecific reservoir ileitis (pouchitis) occurs in 5 to 10 percent of patients who undergo ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis. Specific infection of the ileal pouch-anal anastomosis with cytomegalovirus has not been reported. AIM: We report two patients with specific cytomegalovirus infection of the ileal pouch-anal anastomosis, initially misdiagnosed as idiopathic chronic pouchitis. CASE SERIES: Patient 1 had ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis. Three years later she had diarrhea, fever, pelvic pain, and pouch inflammation at endoscopy consistent with pouchitis. She had no response to medical therapy. Repeat endoscopy showed persistent inflammation and biopsies showed cytomegalovirus. She had symptomatic improvement after treatment with intravenous ganciclovir, 10 mg/kg/day for ten days (stopped for rash). Repeat pouch biopsies were negative for cytomegalovirus. Patient 2 had ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis. Nine years later she had resection of obstructing stricture at previous loop ileostomy site. She underwent reoperation with ileostomy and pouch defunctionalization for peritonitis. Four weeks later she had fever and bloody discharge from the diverted pouch. Pouch endoscopy with biopsy showed inflammation consistent with pouchitis. She had no response to medical therapy. Re-examination of pouch biopsies with a specific monoclonal immunofluorescent stain showed cytomegalovirus. She had symptomatic improvement after treatment with intravenous ganciclovir, 10 mg/kg/day for 21 days. Repeat pouch biopsies were negative for cytomegalovirus. CONCLUSIONS: Specific cytomegalovirus infection of the ileal pouch-anal anastomosis may be misdiagnosed as idiopathic refractory chronic pouchitis. cytomegalovirus must be excluded before immune modifier therapy or pouch excision in these patients. ( info)

10/1519. cytomegalovirus colitis in the immunocompetent host: an overview.

    This paper describes 2 immunocompetent patients with cytomegalovirus colitis and reviews all previously reported cases (n = 13). Affected patients were generally older (69.13 /-15.62 y-old) with probable reactivation (n = 8) or younger (43.86 /-19.73 y-old) with probable primary infection (n = 7). The onset of illness was found to be hospital-associated in 4 (50.0%) reactivation cases and 1 (14.3%) primary case. Presenting manifestations included diarrhoea (86.7%), fever (80.0%), gastrointestinal bleeding (66.7%) and abdominal pain (60.0%). endoscopy showed erosive colitis with multiple (n = 11; 73.3%) or single ulcers (n = 2, 13.3%); biopsy was diagnostic in 12/13 (92.3%) patients. Complications included massive haemorrhage (13.3%), toxic megacolon (13.3%), perforation (13.3%) and protracted inflammatory bowel disease (20.0%; exclusively in primary-infection). The mortality rate was 26.7%. Antiviral-agents were given in 8 (53.3%) cases; assessment of treatment-efficacy was not possible. In conclusion, cytomegalovirus colitis in the immunocompetent-host is a rare but potentially severe erosive disease with significant morbidity. It may occur during primary infection or reactivation; the diagnosis requires careful histopathological examination and the benefit of antiviral-therapy is unknown. ( info)
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