Cases reported "Cytomegalovirus Retinitis"

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1/145. Idiopathic CD4 T lymphocytopenia disclosed by the onset of empyema thoracis.

    A 56-year-old man was admitted to our hospital in December 1996 due to empyema thoracis. A laboratory examination revealed lymphocytopenia and CD4 T lymphocytopenia (<300 cells/ microl). No evidence for a human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection was found. No malignant, hematological or autoimmune disease was detected. We thus diagnosed this case as being idiopathic CD4 T lymphocytopenia (ICL). During his hospital treatment, he was affected with cytomegaloviral retinitis and cured by therapy. His subsequent treatment went well without a recurrence of severe infection although a low CD4 T lymphocyte count continued after the recovery from empyema thoracis. ( info)

2/145. iritis associated with intravenous cidofovir.

    OBJECTIVE: To report two patients with AIDS and cytomegalovirus retinitis who developed iritis after receiving intravenous cidofovir. Both experienced recurrent symptoms upon rechallenge. CASE SUMMARIES: Two hiv-positive patients with cytomegalovirus retinitis infections previously controlled with intravenous ganciclovir or foscarnet were treated with intravenous cidofovir. Symptoms of iritis developed after the second or third dose of cidofovir. One patient experienced symptoms unilaterally, while the other patient had bilateral symptoms. In both patients, the iritis resolved with topical ophthalmic therapy, but recurred following subsequent infusions of cidofovir. Therapy with cidofovir was discontinued, and no further recurrences of iritis were noted. One patient had post-inflammatory fixed dilated pupils. CONCLUSIONS: iritis can uncommonly occur in patients receiving intravenous cidofovir and oral probenecid. With prompt drug discontinuation and administration of topical corticosteroids and/or mydriatic agents, symptoms are usually reversible. ( info)

3/145. Potential complication associated with removal of ganciclovir implants.

    PURPOSE: To describe the complication of separation of the medication pellet from the tab during the removal of a ganciclovir implant. METHOD: case reports. RESULTS: Separation of the pellet from the tab upon removal of ganciclovir implants occurred at the time of reimplantation in two human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-positive patients with cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis. CONCLUSIONS: Our cases show the possibility of pellet separation from the tab during the removal of a ganciclovir implant. Although pellet separation from its tab is rare, surgeons should be aware of this potential complication. Modifying recommended techniques to remove the ganciclovir implant may reduce the incidence of pellet-tab separation. ( info)

4/145. Retinal pigment epithelial dysfunction in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with cytomegalovirus retinitis.

    OBJECTIVE: Prior clinical observations led the authors to examine electrophysiologic measures of retinal (electroretinogram [ERG]) and retinal pigment epithelial (electro-oculogram [EOG]) function in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) who either had or did not have cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis in order to determine if the ERG or EOG measures were differentially affected in CMV retinitis. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: Forty-one hiv-infected patients (20 with and 21 without CMV retinopathy) were evaluated. INTERVENTION: ERGs and EOGs were recorded. patients' fundi were evaluated by indirect ophthalmoscopy or fundus photography. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The ERG a- and b-wave amplitudes and EOG light/dark amplitude ratio (L/D ratio) from the eyes of all patients were compared with values 2 standard deviations from the mean of a normal sample. The area of the retinal lesions was estimated from fundus photographs or from careful drawings made during indirect ophthalmoscopy. RESULTS: The majority of the eyes (64.5%) of the patients with CMV retinitis had subnormal L/D ratios, and most eyes (95%) of patients without CMV retinitis had normal L/D ratios. Only six eyes (four with and two without CMV retinopathy) had subnormal a-wave amplitudes, and there was no significant correlation between a-wave amplitude and the L/D ratio for patients with CMV retinitis. Most eyes (80.6%) of the patients with CMV retinitis had subnormal b-wave amplitudes, but there was no significant correlation between b-wave amplitude and L/D ratio in the patients with CMV retinitis. In three patients with CMV retinitis selected to exemplify the range of effects on the ERG and EOG, the b-wave amplitude loss was roughly proportional to the area of retina visibly affected in indirect ophthalmoscopy. One patient had a nonrhegmatogenous retinal detachment. CONCLUSIONS: Middle retinal function, as reflected in the b-wave amplitude, and retinal pigment epithelial function, as reflected in the L/D ratio, were both compromised in CMV retinitis, but the effect on function in the two layers of the retina appeared independent because there was no significant correlation between the L/D ratio and b-wave amplitude. The decrease in L/D ratio was not secondary to loss of photoreceptor function and probably represents a dysfunction of the retinal pigment epithelium because there was no significant correlation between a-wave amplitude, which was normal in most cases, and L/D ratio. The inner retinal pathology of CMV retinitis is visible clinically and was associated with decreases in b-wave amplitude in this and previous studies. The significant independent retinal pigment epithelial dysfunction demonstrated in this study may be an important predisposing factor to retinal detachment in CMV retinitis. ( info)

5/145. MR imaging of intraventricular silicone: case report.

    A 42-year-old man with human immunodeficiency viral infection developed cytomegaloviral retinitis that was complicated by retinal detachment and was treated with an intravitreous injection of silicone. Fifteen months later, magnetic resonance imaging revealed intraocular and intraventricular silicone. Signal intensity characteristics and chemical shifts of silicone in the two locations were identical. ( info)

6/145. Successful treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis in a patient with malignant lymphoma: a case report and review of the literature.

    A 52-year-old Japanese woman was diagnosed as having angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (stage IV-B). She received 6 courses of chemotherapy including cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone every two weeks (biweekly CHOP), and was considered to be in partial remission. She complained of loss of visual acuity in her right eye during her last cycle of chemotherapy. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis was suspected from the characteristic ophthalmoscopic appearance. This diagnosis was further supported by the detection of CMV dna in blood and antigens in polymorphonuclear leukocytes, a sign of CMV reactivation. Although DNAemia and antigenemia became negative, retinitis remained slightly active despite a 4-week systemic treatment of ganciclovir. Intraocular injection of ganciclovir was started and continued until the retinitis became inactive ophthalmoscopically. The patient received high-dose chemotherapy with peripheral blood stem cell transplantation and achieved complete remission. During the after this therapy no recurrence of CMV infections was observed. This case shows that 1) a quick and accurate diagnosis of CMV retinitis was possible by applying DNAemia and antigenemia and 2) intensive treatment for the CMV infection enabled the accomplishment of cure-oriented chemotherapy of the lymphoma without the recurrence of CMV retinitis. ( info)

7/145. Surgical repair of cytomegalovirus-related retinal detachment without silicone oil in patients with AIDS.

    PURPOSE: To analyze visual and anatomic results following surgical repair of cytomegalovirus (CMV)-related retinal detachment (RD) without silicone oil permanent tamponade. methods: We analyzed five consecutive patients (six eyes) with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and CMV-related RD that were repaired with pars plana vitrectomy with peeling of the posterior hyaloid, laser photocoagulation, encircling scleral buckle, and intraocular gas tamponade. RESULTS: Preoperative vision ranged from 20/40 to hand motion. Total retinal reattachment was achieved in five of six eyes (83%). Macular reattachment was achieved in all eyes. Mean postoperative visual acuity was 20/40 (range 20/30-20/60). Mean postoperative follow-up was 12 months (range 7-19 months). All patients in this series presented with low preoperative CD4 T-lymphocyte counts (mean, 24 cells per microL) and received highly active antiretroviral therapy. One retina (Patient 1) redetached 7 months after initial repair and was successfully reattached without using silicone oil. Postoperatively, visual acuity remains 20/30, and total retinal reattachment has been maintained for 16 months. CONCLUSION: Good anatomic and visual success can be achieved and maintained in CMV-related RD without the use of silicone oil. ( info)

8/145. Control of cytomegalovirus retinitis after combination antiretroviral therapy.

    PURPOSE: To report on AIDS patients having combination antiretroviral therapy whose cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis remained inactive after discontinuation of anti-CMV maintenance therapy. methods: We describe the course of CMV-retinitis in 3 patients with AIDS after initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy. RESULTS: After cessation of anti-CMV therapy no relapse of CMV-retinitis has been observed for up to 18 months. Two of the patients developed new CMV-retinitis in the first months after initiation of combination therapy, nevertheless after further improvement of immunological parameters retinitis remained stable without anti-CMV therapy. CONCLUSION: The sustained immunological effects of combination therapy are possibly sufficient enough to provide protection against CMV-retinitis. ( info)

9/145. Removal of silicone oil with vision improvement after rhegmatogenous retinal detachment following CMV retinitis in patients with AIDS.

    PURPOSE: To report that silicone oil may be safely removed from immuno-recovered patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) after instillation for cytomegalovirus (CMV)-related rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. METHOD: We report two patients with CMV-related retinal detachment who had previously been treated with vitrectomy and silicone oil. RESULTS: Six months after removal of silicone oil, the retina remained attached in both patients. Without specific anti-CMV therapy, there was no relapse of CMV retinitis while patients were undergoing highly active antiretroviral therapy. Best-corrected visual acuity improved in both patients. CONCLUSION: It appears to be possible to remove silicone oil safely from patients with AIDS who show immune recovery, thus avoiding side effects of long-standing silicone oil and increasing quality of life. After silicone oil removal, visual acuity was improved. ( info)

10/145. cytomegalovirus retinitis in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    A number of striking changes have occurred recently in the presentation and course of cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) who are receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Before the use of HAART, CMV retinitis was the most common intraocular infection in patients with AIDS, occurring in up to 40% of patients, typically when CD4 cell counts have decreased to less than 0.10 x 10(9)/L. By studying CMV retinitis, clinicians can investigate whether the rejuvenated immune system that results from HAART can effectively control opportunistic infections in patients with AIDS. In some patients, retinitis has not progressed when specific anti-CMV therapy was discontinued, but a number of patients have developed substantial intraocular inflammation, which has resulted in decreased visual acuity. Anterior uveitis, cataract, vitritis, cystoid macular edema, epiretinal membrane, and disc edema may occur in patients with CMV retinitis who have experienced HAART-associated elevation in CD4 cell counts. Since immune recovery uveitis does not occur in eyes without CMV retinitis, the ocular inflammation appears to be related to the CMV infection. Anti-CMV maintenance therapy likely can be safely discontinued in some patients with CMV retinitis if CD4 cell counts are stable or increasing and have been higher than 0.10 x 10(9)/L for at least 3 months. Immune recovery in patients receiving HAART has been effective in controlling opportunistic infections, but it may also result in intraocular inflammation, which can have adverse effects on the eye. ( info)
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