Cases reported "Death, Sudden"

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1/861. Sudden death after typhoid and Japanese encephalitis vaccination in a young male taking pseudoephedrine.

    The case of a 21-year-old male taking over-the-counter pseudoephedrine for weight loss who died suddenly during exercise shortly after inoculation with Japanese encephalitis and phenol-inactivated typhoid vaccines is presented. The patient collapsed in mild weather while exercising 75 minutes after his vaccinations. He presented in asystole with a core temperature of 42.2 degrees C (108 degrees F). There was no evidence of urticaria or angioedema. It is likely that the combined pyrogenic effects of the vaccines, pseudoephedrine, exercise, and mild obesity contributed to a failure of the thermoregulatory system. fever is still a common side effect of numerous other vaccines. Military physicians should consider administrative controls on thermogenic activities for a period after inoculations. Additionally, the dangers of ephedrine-containing compounds need to be more widely publicized. ( info)

2/861. Sudden unexpected death from pulmonary thromboembolism--examination of antemortem chest X-ray.

    An autopsy case of a woman who died suddenly from undiagnosed and untreated pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) on her way home from the hospital is described in this report. She had complained of chest pain and dyspnea on exertion when she visited the hospital and a chest X-ray taken at that time showed remarkable manifestation of right heart failure and PTE, compared with former x-rays taken during previous visits to the hospital. In this report we present the findings of four chest x-rays of this patient, which had been taken both before and after the development of PTE. ( info)

3/861. Human herpesvirus-6 and sudden death in infancy: report of a case and review of the literature.

    Investigation of sudden death in infancy is a vital function of the medical examiner's office. Surveillance of these cases may lead to recognition of new diseases or new manifestations of previously described diseases. Human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) is a relatively newly described virus that has been recognized as a cause of acute febrile illness in early childhood. While most cases are apparently self-limited, seven fatal cases have been reported. We present a case of a seven-month-old Latin American male with recent otitis media and vomiting who was found dead in bed. autopsy revealed interstitial pneumonitis with an atypical polymorphous lymphocytic infiltrate in the liver, kidney, heart, spleen, lymph nodes, and bone marrow, associated with erythrophagocytosis. polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue was positive for HHV-6 and negative for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV). HHV-6 was also detected in the atypical lymphoid infiltrate by in-situ hybridization. ( info)

4/861. Spontaneous haemothorax: a cause of sudden death in von Recklinghausen's disease.

    Vasculopathy is a relatively frequent but poorly recognised manifestation of von Recklinghausen's neurofibromatosis. One of its more dramatic presentations is as spontaneous haemothorax. Clinicians and pathologists should be aware of this syndrome as a cause of sudden death in patients with neurofibromatosis. ( info)

5/861. Asplenia as a cause of sudden unexpected death in childhood.

    Sudden unexpected death in childhood is rare. The commonest causes of such deaths are a result of fulminating infections of the respiratory or nervous systems. Other causes include unsuspected congenital abnormalities of the heart, acute metabolic disorders, and rarities such as internal hemorrhages and pulmonary thrombosis. Recognition of children with congenital asplenia who are otherwise normal but have an increased susceptibility to overwhelming sepsis is extremely difficult. We reviewed 1763 autopsy files from our institution over 5 years (1990-1995), of which 293 were classified as pediatric cases. The vast majority of the cases were stillbirths and deaths within the first year of life as a result of complex congenital anomalies. Four cases of asplenia were identified in our entire series, 3 of which were of the congenital syndromal variety and 1 of which was a case of isolated sporadic congenital asplenia. All 4 cases of asplenia were analyzed in detail with respect to autopsy findings and cause of death. Severe complex cardiac malformations were present in the congenital syndromal asplenia patients; these other malformations contributed significantly to their death. In this report, we discuss in detail the autopsy findings in a previously healthy 4-year-old girl who presented with a brief 8-hour history of being unwell and died within 4 hours of admission into the hospital. She had sporadic, isolated congenital asplenia complicated by high-grade type 6B pneumococcemia and acute bilateral adrenal hemorrhage (waterhouse-friderichsen syndrome). Previously healthy children who clinically deteriorate very rapidly should have a blood smear done as part of their clinical workup. The detection of Howell-Jolly bodies on a peripheral blood smear can be an indicator of asplenia, and this diagnosis can be confirmed by medical imaging of the abdomen. Such steps may aid in the aggressive management of isolated congenital asplenia and thereby avert untimely death. ( info)

6/861. Adrenocortical insufficiency.

    Primary adrenocortical insufficiency is a rare disease which may present with protean clinical symptoms and signs. At one end of the spectrum is the patient with a long clinical history with marked pigmentation and documented episodes of crises which may follow relatively minor viral illnesses. The other extreme is illustrated by patients with a rapid deterioration in health culminating in unexpected or unexplained death. In the latter instances, the forensic pathologist may well be involved, and the case will present a significant challenge to diagnosis. We report 5 cases of primary and secondary adrenocortical insufficiency seen at the Victorian Institute of forensic medicine in 1 year. One adult man presented as a case of sudden unexplained death. In 2 cases, the diagnosis of adrenocortical insufficiency was raised following postmortem examination and confirmed by the treating physician following further consultation. In the remaining 2 cases, the diagnosis was known prior to postmortem examination and the diagnosis confirmed. ( info)

7/861. noonan syndrome and cavernous hemangioma of the brain.

    We present two patients with multiple characteristics that occur in Noonan phenotype and cavernous hemangioma of the brain. The first patient, who had been diagnosed radiographically as having a cavernous hemangioma in the left basal ganglia at age 15 years, developed massive intracerebral hemorrhage, resulting in sudden death at home at 19 years. The second patient, who was diagnosed radiographically as having a cavernous hemangioma in the left parietal lobe at age 17 years, is being followed carefully (the patient is currently 18 years old). A review disclosed four cases of structural cerebrovascular abnormalities with or without subsequent hemorrhage. Neither these four patients nor our two patients had any severe anomalies in the heart or large vessels, which are frequently seen in patients with noonan syndrome. Cerebrovascular abnormalities might have a significant influence on the prognosis of patients with noonan syndrome, especially those having no severe abnormalities in the heart or large vessels. ( info)

8/861. Unexpected death in persons with symptomatic epilepsy due to glial brain tumors: a report of two cases and review of the literature.

    Two cases of unexpected death in persons with epileptic seizures due to a brain tumor are presented which encompassed an astrocytoma WHO grade II and an anaplastic astrocytoma WHO grade III. A 35-year-old man was found somnolent and disoriented at home. A computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a tumor of the right frontal lobe suggestive for an oligodendroglioma. During an angiographic examination the patient experienced an epileptic seizure. Some weeks later, the man was found dead in front of his house with a fresh bite mark of the tongue. Neuropathological examination revealed an astrocytoma WHO grade II of the right frontal lobe. A 47-year-old man plunged into a swimming-pool and was found submerged some minutes later. After resuscitation he survived comatose for 8 days but finally died due to severe hypoxic brain damage. He had been operated on a brain tumor of the temporal lobe 1 year before the accident. Neuropathological examination revealed residual tumor tissue at the operation site corresponding to an anaplastic astrocytoma WHO grade III. Although rare, death in persons with epileptic seizures due to brain tumors is an important mechanism of death encountered by the forensic pathologist. ( info)

9/861. andersen syndrome autosomal dominant in three generations.

    andersen syndrome is a rare entity and comprises potassium sensitive periodic paralysis, ventricular arrhythmia, and an unusual facial appearance; syncope and sudden death have also been reported. The recognition of the characteristic face permits an early diagnosis in order to detect the severe systemic manifestations that are associated with this syndrome. The genetic defect is not linked to any other form of potassium sensitive periodic paralysis nor is it related to that of the long qt syndrome; nevertheless, a prolonged QT interval can be detected in a significant proportion of the cases. Sixteen cases of this syndrome have been described. We report on a three-generation family with 10 affected members. To our knowledge, this is the largest number of cases reported in one family. We noted some additional minor anomalies such as broad forehead and malar hypoplasia. Our patients had variable expression in the classical triad and of the severity of the systemic manifestations. Five of 8 affected studied members did not have a long QTc, which has been suggested as a constant finding in this syndrome. ( info)

10/861. Sudden death due to a central neurocytoma.

    The central neurocytoma is a common, usually intraventricular tumor with bland histologic features. We report a case of a 51-year-old man who died suddenly. At autopsy, a neurocytoma with acute hemorrhage filled the anterior left lateral ventricle. The tumor matrix and surrounding brain tissue contained accumulations of hemosiderin. Previously, 2 cases of central neurocytoma with associated hemorrhage have been reported. hemorrhage appears to be a serious complication associated with these neoplasms. ( info)
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