Cases reported "diffuse axonal injury"

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1/16. Diffusion-weighted imaging demonstrates transient cytotoxic edema involving the corpus callosum in a patient with diffuse brain injury.

    Reversible T2 hyperintense signal abnormality in the corpus callosum, although frequently seen after diffuse brain injury, has not been well clarified. With some accumulated evidence, we report a case of diffuse brain injury in a 24-year-old man. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated T2 hyperintense signals in the trunk and the splenium of the corpus callosum 12 days postinjury. Echo-planar diffusion-weighted imaging was also performed on the same day, which revealed decreased diffusion (hyperintense signals) in the same site and almost the same size as T2 hyperintense signals. T1-weighted images were normal. Neuropsychological examination of the patient did not show callosal syndrome, namely hemialexia, unilateral agraphia and unilateral apraxia. Repeat MRI on day 20 demonstrated a signal decrease of both T2-weighted images and diffusion-weighted images (DWI) in the lesion. Follow-up MRI at 6 months showed complete resolution of the T2 signal abnormalities and of the corresponding decreased diffusion. Considering that diffusion-weighted imaging showed transient decreased diffusion, the lesion in the corpus callosum indicated the existence of cytotoxic edema. Also, transient DWI hyperintensity, namely cytotoxic edema, in the trunk and the splenium of the corpus callosum does not necessarily reveal callosal deficits. ( info)

2/16. Brain injury after survived gunshot to the head: reactive alterations at sites remote from the missile track.

    Gunshot wounds to the brain usually lead to acute respiratory arrest or death after a brief survival period, even in cases involving only slight direct tissue damage. It can be assumed therefore that the damage extends beyond the zone of recognizable destruction and hemorrhages. To determine the true extent of the tissue injury resulting from gunshot wounds to the brain, we carried out microscopic investigations for reactive changes (emigration of leukocytes and macrophages, axonal expression of beta-amyloid precursor protein (beta-APP) in 10 cases of gunshot wound to the narrow channel of the brain with survival times >2h. Demonstration of leukocytes expressing naphthol AS-D chloroacetate esterase activity in the brain tissue at the border of the missile track established the vitality of the gunshot effect. The presence of macrophages (CD68-epitope) allowed demarcation of a 1-2mm wide necrotic zone around the permanent cavity. Within this zone and beyond, beta-APP showed an initial increase followed by a decline in the number of injured axons. Three types of beta-APP positive staining could be differentiated. In the immediate vicinity of the missile track beta-APP positive neurons were present at a distance of 2-4mm from the margin of the permanent cavity (type 1) as a result of primary injured neuronal tissue by the gunshot itself. At longer distances from the narrow channel and the permanent cavity single beta-APP positive axons or axon fragments and two additional types were found; type 2 shows a parallel, wave-like arrangement of the damaged fibers, which suggests that the injury was produced by mechanical acceleration of the brain tissue created by the energy the projectile expended within the brain; irregular aggregation of beta-APP positive axons or axon fragments within a local edema represents type 3, which may be attributed to secondary ischemia or edema. ( info)

3/16. The minimally conscious state in children.

    The minimally conscious state (MCS) is a condition of severely altered consciousness in which minimal but definite behavioral evidence of self- or environmental awareness is shown. Diagnostic criteria recently have been proposed for entry into and emergence from the MCS. We present clinical and neuroimaging data on 5 children diagnosed with MCS and discuss the limited information available concerning its epidemiology, etiology, pathology, and prognosis. Issues related to the evaluation and care of children suspected of having MCS are also reviewed as well as current ethical and legal controversies. ( info)

4/16. Cerebral endothelial injury in severe head injury: the significance of measurements of serum thrombomodulin and the von willebrand factor.

    thrombomodulin (TM), which is located in the surface of the endothelium in the arteries, veins, and capillaries of major organs such as the brain, lungs, liver, kidneys, skeletal muscles, and gastrointestinal tract, is one of several indicators of endothelial injury. von willebrand factor (vWf), which is synthesized by endothelial cells, is also an endothelial specific glycoprotein. The serum level of vWf increases in response to various stimuli without endothelial injury. An elevated serum level of vWf may suggest endothelial activation in severe head injury. We hypothesize that the degree of cerebral endothelial activation or injury depends on the type of head injury and that measuring the TM and vWf is useful for predicting delayed traumatic intracerebral hematoma (DTICH), produced by weakness of the vessel wall, occuring either as a direct or indirect effect of head injury. The values of vWf in focal brain injury (ranging from 332.5 /- 52.8% to 361.7 /- 86.2%) were significantly higher than those in diffuse axonal injury from 2 h to 7 days after the injury occurred (ranging from 201.6 /- 59.5% to 242.5 /- 51.7%). The serum level of TM in focal brain injury (ranging from 3.84 /- 1.54 to 4.12 /- 1.46 U/mL) was higher than that in diffuse axonal injury (ranging from 2.96 /- 0.63 to 3.67 /- 1.70 U/mL), but these differences were not statistically significant. In patients with DTICH, TM was significantly higher than in patients without DTICH (p < 0.01). The results of our study demonstrate that the degree of endothelial activation in focal brain injury was significantly higher than in diffuse brain injury. In addition, the serum level of TM in patients with DTICH was significantly higher than in patients without DTICH. These findings suggest that cerebral tissue injury is often accompanied by cerebral endothelial activation, and that these two phenomena should be distinguished from each other. The levels of serum TM and vWf appear to be good indicators of the cerebral endothelial injury and of endothelial activation in severe head injury. ( info)

5/16. Successful treatment by spinal cord stimulation for gait disturbance in a patient with diffuse axonal injury.

    The authors present a case of diffuse axonal injury (DAI) treated by cervical spinal cord stimulation (C-SCS) for gait disturbance. The patient had right hemiparesis of moderate degree, mild ataxia, ideational apraxia and gait disturbance, when admitted to our hospital for rehabilitation. He could not walk by himself, nevertheless neurorehabilitation was done for four months. xenon-CT was examined by C-SCS loading and the changes of regional cerebral blood flow were significantly increased in both hemispheres, especially in the thalamus. C-SCS was performed continuously on condition of 25 Hz, 200 microsec and 0.5 V, daily for a month. Neurological deficits, especially gait disturbance due to ideational apraxia, were gradually improved after initiation of C-SCS, and the patient could walk by himself. We speculate that C-SCS played a role in triggering improvement of gait disturbance at the chronic stage in our case, and SCS may be helpful for neurorehabilitation of focal symptoms after DAI. ( info)

6/16. Delayed presentation of diffuse axonal injury: a case report.

    This report highlights a case of delayed onset of diffuse axonal injury in the apparent absence of direct head trauma. This case questions the appropriate observation period for patients with signs of diffuse axonal injury presenting after a high-velocity crash. ( info)

7/16. Thalamic deep brain stimulation for posttraumatic action tremor.

    We report a case of thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) for treatment of posttraumatic tremor. An 18-year-old right-handed man developed a disabling and medically refractory action tremor in the right upper extremity 9 months after sustaining diffuse axonal injury in a motor vehicle collision. DBS of the left ventral intermediate nucleus of the thalamus (Vim) suppressed the tremor without complication and should be considered as an option for the management of intractable posttraumatic tremor. ( info)

8/16. Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsy: fulminant development with axonal loss during military training.

    Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsy (HNPP) is characterised by recurrent mononeuropathies following minor trauma. We describe a case of fulminant HNPP beginning on the first day of military physical training. Protracted weakness, muscle atrophy, hand contractures, and multifocal sensory loss developed during a further three weeks of basic training. Nerve conduction changes were typical of HNPP, but without segmental slowing. Electromyographically, there was prominent acute denervation in muscles of the hands and right shoulder. sural nerve biopsy demonstrated tomaculae and remyelination. genetic testing revealed PMP-22 gene deletion. This case report demonstrates that HNPP can present with rapidly progressive peripheral nerve dysfunction and electrophysiological evidence of focal axonal loss. ( info)

9/16. Serial evaluation of diffusion tensor brain fiber tracking in a patient with severe diffuse axonal injury.

    Serial evaluation of diffusion tensor brain fiber tracking was performed in a 27-year-old female patient with diffuse axonal injury after a traffic accident. Although the result of brain fiber tracking was not necessarily parallel to her clinical symptoms, it may have predicted the neurologic prognosis. ( info)

10/16. diffusion tensor imaging with three-dimensional fiber tractography of traumatic axonal shearing injury: an imaging correlate for the posterior callosal "disconnection" syndrome: case report.

    OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate that magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) with three-dimensional (3-D) fiber tractography can visualize traumatic axonal shearing injury that results in posterior callosal disconnection syndrome. methods: A 22-year-old man underwent serial magnetic resonance imaging 3 days and 12 weeks after blunt head injury. The magnetic resonance images included whole-brain DTI acquired with a single-shot spin echo echoplanar sequence. 3-D DTI fiber tractography of the splenium of the corpus callosum was performed. Quantitative DTI parameters, including apparent diffusion coefficient and fractional anisotropy, from the site of splenial injury were compared with those of a normal adult male volunteer. RESULTS: Conventional magnetic resonance images revealed findings of diffuse axonal injury, including a lesion at the midline of the splenium of the corpus callosum. DTI performed 3 days posttrauma revealed that the splenial lesion had reduced apparent diffusion coefficient and fractional anisotropy, reflecting a large decrease in the magnitude of diffusion parallel to the white matter fibers, which had partially recovered as revealed by follow-up DTI 12 weeks postinjury. 3-D tractography revealed an interruption of the white matter fibers in the posteroinferior aspect of the splenium that correlated with the patient's left hemialexia, a functional deficit caused by disconnection of the right visual cortex from the language centers of the dominant left hemisphere. CONCLUSION: DTI with 3-D fiber tractography can visualize acute axonal shearing injury, which may have prognostic value for the cognitive and neurological sequelae of traumatic brain injury. ( info)
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