Cases reported "Digeorge Syndrome"

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11/187. Identification and evaluation of mental retardation.

    Mental retardation in young children is often missed by clinicians. The condition is present in 2 to 3 percent of the population, either as an isolated finding or as part of a syndrome or broader disorder. Causes of mental retardation are numerous and include genetic and environmental factors. In at least 30 to 50 percent of cases, physicians are unable to determine etiology despite thorough evaluation. diagnosis is highly dependent on a comprehensive personal and family medical history, a complete physical examination and a careful developmental assessment of the child. These will guide appropriate evaluations and referrals to provide genetic counseling, resources for the family and early intervention programs for the child. The family physician is encouraged to continue regular follow-up visits with the child to facilitate a smooth transition to adolescence and young adulthood. ( info)

12/187. Stenting of stenosed aortopulmonary collaterals and shunts for palliation of pulmonary atresia/ventricular septal defect.

    patients with unrepaired pulmonary artery atresia and ventricular septal defect (PA/VSD) depend on aortoplumonary collaterals and surgically created shunts for pulmonary blood flow. These vessels frequently develop stenoses with time, leading to hypoperfusion of lung segments and systemic hypoxemia. The purpose of this article is to describe catheter palliation of hypoxemic patients with PA/VSD who were not candidates for surgical repair. We present our experience with stent implantation for stenosis of aortopulmonary collaterals and shunts in these patients. Three patients with hypoplastic pulmonary arteries underwent stent placement in aortopulmonary collateral arteries (APCAs) or their shunts. Technical aspects of the interventional catheterization procedure are discussed in detail. Case 1 underwent placement of five stents in collateral vessels and one stent in the Blalock-Taussig shunt (BT) with dramatic increase in vessel size and improvement in saturations from 70% to 89%. Case 2 underwent placement of two overlapping stents in a collateral vessel with an increase in diameter of the collateral vessel from 2.3 to 6 mm and an improvement in saturation from 68% to 88%. Case 3 underwent placement of three overlapping stents in a BT shunt with an increase in diameter of the shunt from 2.2 to 6.6 mm and an improvement in saturation from 71% to 89%. All three patients had excellent clinical improvement and stable saturation at follow-up. Stent placement for maintaining patency of APCAs and aortopulmonary shunts is feasible and safe. ( info)

13/187. Dual-probe fluorescence in situ hybridization assay for detecting deletions associated with VCFS/digeorge syndrome I and digeorge syndrome II loci.

    Over 90% of patients with digeorge syndrome (DGS) or velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS) have a microdeletion at 22q11.2. Given that these deletions are difficult to visualize at the light microscopic level, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has been instrumental in the diagnosis of this disorder. Deletions on the short arm of chromosome 10 are also associated with a DGS-like phenotype. Since deletions at 22q11.2 and at 10p13p14 result in similar findings, we have developed a dual-probe FISH assay for screening samples referred for DGS or VCFS in the clinical laboratory. This assay includes two test probes for the loci, DGSI at 22q11.2 and DGSII at 10p13p14, and centromeric probes for chromosomes 10 and 22. Of 412 patients tested, 54 were found to be deleted for the DGSI locus on chromosome 22 (13%), and a single patient was found deleted for the DGSII locus on chromosome 10 (0. 24%). The patient with the 10p deletion had facial features consistent with VCFS, plus sensorineural hearing loss, and renal anomalies. cytogenetic analysis showed a large deletion of 10p [46, XX,del(10)(p12.2p14)] and FISH using a 10p telomere region-specific probe confirmed the interstitial nature of the deletion. Analysis for the DGSI and the DGSII loci suggests that the deletion of the DGSII locus on chromosome 10 may be 50 times less frequent than the deletion of DGSI on chromosome 22. The incidence of deletions at 22q11.2 has been estimated to be 1 in 4000 newborns; therefore, the deletion at 10p13p14 may be estimated to occur in 1 in 200,000 live births. ( info)

14/187. Congenital primary hypoparathyroidism presented with extensive cutaneous and subcutaneous calcifications.

    Congenital primary hypoparathyroidism is very rare in infancy. It may be isolated or associated with other developmental defects, arising from the third and fourth pharyngeal pouches such as digeorge syndrome. Initial symptom of isolated primary hypoparathyroidism in an infant is usually generalized convulsion due to hypocalcemia. However, the clinical spectrum of DiGeorge's anomaly is highly variable. We report a two-hour-old neonate with congenital hypoparathyroidism presenting with extensive cutaneous and subcutaneous calcifications. To our knowledge, extensive calcification of the skin and subcutaneous tissue as a presenting feature of congenital primary hypoparathyroidism in an infant is reported for the first time. ( info)

15/187. digeorge syndrome with Graves' disease: A case report.

    digeorge syndrome (DGS) is characterized by aplasia or hypoplasia of the thymus and parathyroid glands, cardiac defects and anomaly face. This syndrome is usually associated with hypocalcemia resulting from hypoparathyroidism. In most cases the initial symptom is tetany caused by hypocalcemia within 24-48 hours after birth, with symptoms by immune abnormality appearing later. We report a woman who passed with no symptoms before age 18 and was diagnosed digeorge syndrome by tetany with developing auto-immune thyroid disease (Graves' disease). She had surgery for intraventricular septal defect at age 3, hypoparathyroidism, decrease of T cells in peripheral blood and the deletion of the 22nd chromosome long arm (22q11.2). It is supposed that abnormalities of immune function of this case are not complete as indicated by complicating of Graves' disease, and contributing to her long-term survival. ( info)

16/187. An unusual concurrence of graft versus host disease caused by engraftment of maternal lymphocytes with DiGeorge anomaly.

    We describe a girl with DiGeorge anomaly and normal cytogenetic and molecular studies, whose clinical course was complicated by graft versus host disease caused by intrauterine materno-fetal transfusion, and several immunohematological alterations including a monoclonal gammapathy of undetermined significance (first IgG, which subsequently changed to IgM). The main clinical features and pathological findings are discussed. ( info)

17/187. Inv dup(22), del(22)(q11) and r(22) in the father of a child with digeorge syndrome.

    We here report a unique inherited case of digeorge syndrome. The asymptomatic father had a mosaic karyotype with a 21q11 deletion in three different cell lines. In two of the cell lines there was an additional supernumerary inv dup(22) or an r(22), respectively. In the third cell line the del(22) was the sole anomaly. FISH analysis showed that both the inv dup(22) and the r(22) included the DGS region. We hypothesize that an inter-chromosomal recombination between inverted repeats, together with a recombination between sister chromatids during meiosis I, gave rise to a deletion of 22q11 as well as an inv dup(22) containing the DGS region. The inv dup(22) was later rearranged into a ring chromosome during mitosis which was subsequently lost during cell division, thereby resulting in three different cell lines. This is the first case reported with an inv dup(22) and a del(22)(q11) in the same cell line. Our findings support a related mechanism in the formation of these two rearrangements mediated by low-copy repeats. ( info)

18/187. Simultaneous multiorgan presence of human herpesvirus 8 and restricted lymphotropism of Epstein-Barr virus dna sequences in a human immunodeficiency virus-negative immunodeficient infant.

    Because a profound dysregulation of the immune system occurs in primary immunodeficiencies, viral infections are not uncommon. Human herpesvirus (HHV)-8 dna was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis, Southern blotting, and in situ hybridization (ISH) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and lymphoid organs (bone marrow, spleen, and lymph nodes) and endothelial and epithelial cells and macrophages from several organs (skin, lung, esophagus, intestine, choroid plexus [but not in brain or cerebellum], heart, striated muscle, liver, and kidney) of a human immunodeficiency virus-negative infant with DiGeorge anomaly who died of disseminated infection. Epstein-Barr virus dna sequences were detected in the spleen and lymph nodes (by PCR and ISH) and in bone marrow (only by ISH) but not in blood or nonlymphoid organs. This report is believed to be the first of multiorgan dissemination of HHV-8 in a primary immunodeficiency. ( info)

19/187. Isolated innominate artery in 22q11 microdeletion.

    A patient with an isolated left innominate artery (with a right-sided cervical aortic arch) is described. This is the first report of such an anomaly associated with chromosome 22q11 microdeletion. The abnormality represents an interruption in the primitive aortic arch that is atypical for this chromosome deletion. ( info)

20/187. fragile x syndrome and 22q11.2 microdeletion in the same sibship.

    We present a family with an unusual association of two frequent genetic disorders, 22q11.2 microdeletion and fragile x syndrome, originating from the same parent. Our observation confirms the wide intrafamilial clinical variability of the 22q11.2 microdeletion and illustrates the difficulty of the clinical diagnosis for the fragile x syndrome in affected females. ( info)
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