Cases reported "disease progression"

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1/3257. Pseudomonal pericarditis complicating cystic fibrosis.

    patients with advanced cystic fibrosis typically have chronic bacterial infection of the upper and lower respiratory tracts, but rarely develop extrapulmonary sites of infection. We report a case of purulent pericarditis due to pseudomonas aeruginosa in a patient with cystic fibrosis and no other risk factors for pericarditis. This is a previously unreported complication in cystic fibrosis prior to lung transplantation. ( info)

2/3257. Lymphomatosis cerebri presenting as a rapidly progressive dementia: clinical, neuroimaging and pathologic findings.

    Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) usually presents with clinical and neuroimaging findings consistent with single or multiple intracranial mass lesions. On cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), such lesions are nearly always contrast enhancing, reflecting disruption of the blood-brain barrier at the site of tumor nodules. We describe 2 cases from the UCLA Medical Center who developed a rapidly progressive dementia due to extensive gray and white matter cerebral lesions involving much of the brain. In the patient who came to autopsy, widely infiltrating, focally necrotic B-cell plasmacytoid lymphoma was noted throughout the cerebral neuraxis. MRI findings in case 2 were consistent with diffuse lymphomatous brain infiltration without mass lesions, which was biopsy proven. We conclude that PCNSL may occur in a diffusely infiltrating form which may occur without MRI evidence of mass lesions or blood-brain barrier compromise. We refer to this entity as 'lymphomatosis cerebri' and add it to the differential diagnosis of a rapidly progressive dementia. ( info)

3/3257. Serial electroencephalographic findings in patients with MELAS.

    To clarify the electroencephalographic characteristics of mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and strokelike episodes (MELAS), the medical records and electroencephalograms of six patients with MELAS and two of their relatives with MELA (mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, and lactic acidosis, without strokelike episodes) were retrospectively reviewed. All have a point mutation in the mitochondrial dna at nucleotide position 3243. The electroencephalograms (n = 79) were divided into four groups according to the time relation to the strokelike episode: (1) before the first strokelike episode, (2) within 5 days after the strokelike episode (acute stage), (3) between 6 days and 1 month after the strokelike episode (subacute stage), and (4) more than 1 month after the strokelike episode (chronic stage). In the acute stage, 10 of the 11 electroencephalograms (9 strokelike episodes in four patients) revealed focal high-voltage delta waves with polyspikes (FHDPS), which were recognized as ictal electroencephalogram. Ictal events during FHDPS included focal clonic or myoclonic seizure and migrainous headache. In the subacute and chronic stages, focal spikes or sharp waves and 14- and 6-Hz positive bursts were frequently recorded. The authors' results suggest that FHDPSs present a reliable and accurate indicator of a strokelike episode in patients with MELAS. ( info)

4/3257. SSPE following neonatal measles infection.

    The authors report a case of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in a child who had measles during the neonatal period. At 3 years, 6 months of age, over a period of a few weeks, the patient lost the ability to sit unaided as a result of progressive truncal ataxia, without apparent cognitive changes, simulating acute cerebellar ataxia. His symptoms improved in 1 month, and he was able to walk again with support, but mental alteration and periodic mild head nodding on awakening followed. His illness was diagnosed as subacute sclerosing panencephalitis on the basis of the elevated titers of measles antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid. measles infection before 1 year of age is a risk factor of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, but reports about patients with neonatal measles infection are rare. Immaturity of the brain at the time of measles infection may not only be a risk factor but may also influence the clinical course of the disease. ( info)

5/3257. technetium-99m-HmPAO brain SPECT in infantile Gaucher's disease.

    The authors report serial technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene-amine-oxime brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) findings in two infants with Gaucher's disease type 2. Detailed neurologic and laboratory examinations, including bone marrow biopsies and enzymatic assays, were described. Serial brain magnetic resonance imaging studies in one patient illustrated the progressive cerebral atrophy in the frontal and temporal lobes. The SPECT in both cases demonstrated positive findings of initial scattered hypoperfusion, with extending to hypoperfusion of the entire cerebrum after 4 months of clinical deterioration. These changes in the SPECT findings may reflect progressive degeneration of the cerebrum in Gaucher's disease type 2. Brain SPECT may provide useful information on cerebral flow and metabolic distribution corresponding to the neurologic deficits of neuronopathic Gaucher's disease. ( info)

6/3257. Cognitive deterioration associated with focal cortical dysplasia.

    Surgery for an area of focal cortical dysplasia in a critical region is reported in a right-handed female manifesting intractable focal epilepsy and verbal cognitive deterioration. She developed the first seizure at 2 years of age and was treated with phenytoin and zonisamide, with good control until 10 years of age. Although seizures did not occur at 9 years of age, she manifested dyscalculia, right-left disorientation, and finger agnosia, and N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) revealed focal hypoperfusion in the left parietal lobe. At 11 years of age, she developed regular nocturnal seizures and gradually lost the ability to understand the meaning of sentences. Verbal IQ declined from 94 to 63, and the area of hypoperfusion detected by interictal N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine SPECT spread over the left parietotemporal lobes. magnetic resonance imaging revealed focal cortical dysplasia mainly in the left parietal lobe, and ictal technetium-99m-ethyl cysteinate dimer SPECT images demonstrated an area of hyperperfusion around the focal cortical dysplasia, including the left precentral gyrus. Because of the overlap between the epileptogenic and functional cortex, the authors concluded that cortical resection, including focal cortical dysplasia, was inappropriate in this patient. ( info)

7/3257. A novel form of familial congenital muscular dystrophy in two adolescents.

    We report on two brothers (the product of first-degree consanguineous marriage; aged 15 and 12 years) who presented with severe hypotonia at birth, proximal muscle weakness associated with delayed motor milestones but normal cognitive function. Investigations (at 4 years of age) revealed mildly elevated serum creatine kinase (CK) levels (300 and 824 IU/l; N < or = 210). Muscle biopsies showed minimal change myopathy, no neurogenic atrophy but remarkable type-1 fibre predominance (up to 85.5%) without fibre-type disproportion. Clinical examination at 12 and 9 years, respectively, showed mild facial weakness and high-arched palate in both patients. The younger sibling also had ptosis but otherwise normal external ocular muscles. They showed symmetric proximal muscle weakness and wasting associated with calf-muscle hypertrophy. They could walk independently. A repeat muscle biopsy showed advanced dystrophic changes in the younger patient at the age of 10 years. Virtually all the remaining fibres were type 1. immunohistochemistry revealed normal expression of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC), including dystrophin, beta-dystroglycan, alpha-(adhalin), beta-, gamma-, and delta-sarcoglycan, laminin-alpha2 chain (merosin) and syntrophin. Mild dystrophic features and type-1 fibre predominance (92.5%) were seen in the biopsy of the older patient, whereas immunohistochemistry showed normal expression of the DGC. Both cases also showed clear expression of integrin alpha7 at the muscle fibre surface and in the blood vessels. Three years later, they could still walk, but with difficulty, and the older brother showed enlargement of the tongue and echocardiographic features of left ventricular dilated cardiomyopathy. ( info)

8/3257. Familial cerebellar hypoplasia and pancytopenia without chromosomal breakages.

    Two siblings manifested a neuro-haematologic syndrome characterised by low birth weight, failure to thrive, chronic persistent tongue ulceration, severe truncal ataxia and pancytopenia without either telangiectasia or chromosomal instability. One sibling died from sepsis and the cerebellum demonstrated reduced cellularity of the molecular and granular layers with relative preservation of purkinje cells and minimal gliosis. A surviving sibling has shown haematologic progression to a myelodysplastic disorder. There was no evidence of any chromosomal instability following exposure of fibroblasts and lymphocytes to irradiation. monosomy-7 was not present in the surviving sibling. We suspect that these two patients represent another example of the rare Hoyeraal-Hreidarsson syndrome and we are currently engaged in very close monitoring of the surviving sibling for evidence of any karyotypic abnormality. ( info)

9/3257. Juvenile form of dihydropteridine reductase deficiency in 2 Tunisian patients.

    Two brothers are described who had juvenile-onset DHPR deficiency. Both were considered normal until six years of age when they developed a fluctuating and progressive encephalopathy combining mental retardation, epilepsy, pyramidal, cerebellar and extrapyramidal signs. ( info)

10/3257. central nervous system T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder in a patient with chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection.

    PURPOSE: central nervous system (CNS)-T cell lymphoproliferative disorder (T-LPD) developing during the course of chronic active Epstein-Barr virus (CAEBV) infection is reported. patients AND methods: CAEBV was diagnosed in a 14-month-old boy with fever, cytopenia, hepatosplenomegaly, and abnormal high titers of anti-Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) antibodies. At 8 years of age, he had a splenectomy because of progressive disease. RESULTS: After 27 months of clinical remission, muscle weakness and paresthesia developed. magnetic resonance imaging of his brain showed spotty T2 prolongation in left parietal, bilateral frontal, and temporal white matter with meningeal enhancement. Brain biopsy revealed the cerebral infiltration of CD3 , CD4 , CD8-, CD45RO , CD56-, and EBV-encoded rna 1 cells. CONCLUSIONS: The CNS involvement of EBV-associated T-LPD is a rare but serious complication in CAEBV without known underlying immunodeficiency. ( info)
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