Cases reported "Dizziness"

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1/166. Downbeat nystagmus caused by thiamine deficiency: an unusual presentation of CNS localization of large cell anaplastic CD 30-positive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    A 24-year-old woman with a large cell anaplastic CD 30-positive T-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) developed downbeat nystagmus, anisocoria, and oscillopsia. Prior to overt cerebral invasion by NHL, she had a thiamine deficiency with very low thiamine concentrations in the CSF, probably caused by protracted vomiting and increased vitamin B1 consumption by intrathecal tumor cells. We believe that her neurologic symptoms were caused -- at least partly -- by thiamine deficiency, as she reacted well to thiamine supplementation at the beginning of treatment. ( info)

2/166. Remote medical consultation for vestibular disorders: technological solutions and case report.

    Complaints of vertigo and imbalance are common presentations to primary care physicians, yet there are few specialists who diagnose and treat these problems as a significant part of their practices. We demonstrated the feasibility of remote consultation for a patient presenting with vertigo using a two-way digital video and audio network. It was possible to take an appropriate history, examine the patient, and provide a diagnosis and treatment. The patient had a common problem that causes dizziness: benign positional vertigo (BPV). An essential component of the examination was the use of a head-mounted display with embedded cameras. The cameras allowed viewing of the patient's eye movements, which were diagnostic. ( info)

3/166. syncope in the pediatric patient. The cardiologist's perspective.

    The evaluation of syncopal children or adolescents relies heavily on a thorough, detailed history and physical examination. All syncope associated with exercise or exertion must be considered dangerous. The ECG is mandatory, but other laboratory tests are generally of limited value unless guided by pertinent positives or negatives in the history and physical examination. The ECG allows screening for dysrhythmias, such as wolff-parkinson-white syndrome, heart block, and long qt syndrome, as well as hypertrophic cardiomyopathies and myocarditis. Tilt table testing can be useful in selecting therapy by demonstrating the physiologic response leading to syncope in an individual patient. The most common type of syncope in otherwise healthy children and adolescents is neurocardiogenic or vasodepressor syncope, which is a benign and transient condition. Because syncope can be a predictor of sudden cardiac death, it must be taken seriously, and appropriate screening must be performed. ( info)

4/166. Malignant pilocytic astrocytoma in the medulla oblongata: case report.

    A 27-year-old woman visited our hospital with chief complaints of abducens nerve palsy and cerebellar symptoms. On computerized tomographic scanning and magnetic resonance imaging, a tumor with strong enhancement was found on the dorsal side of the medulla oblongata. A tumor was excised by suboccipital craniotomy and C1 laminectomy. Histologically, many Rosenthal fibers together with pilocytic tumor cells were found in some regions, but a very high Ki-67 labeling rate accompanied by cells with nuclei of irregular size and giant cells was observed in other regions. The tumor was diagnosed as malignant pilocytic astrocytoma originating from pilocytic astrocytoma by transformation. The biological behavior of pilocytic astrocytoma is obscure in several respects. We report our experience of a case of malignant pilocytic astrocytoma that developed in the brain stem and progressed extremely rapidly. ( info)

5/166. Capture and fusion beats during atrial fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia.

    Two patients were presented, and two previously unreported observations were made. Patient 1, a 50 year old man with episodic palpitations and dizziness for 10 years, exhibited initiation of idiopathic ventricular tachycardia (VT) by atrial fibrillation (AF). Patient 2, a 43 year old woman with a structurally normal heart but recurrent palpitations for one year, demonstrated fusion and capture beats during simultaneous VT and AF. An explanation is given as to why the latter phenomenon is rarely observed. ( info)

6/166. meningeal carcinomatosis manifested as bilateral progressive sensorineural hearing loss.

    OBJECTIVE: meningeal carcinomatosis is defined as the diffuse infiltration of the leptomeninges and subarachnoid space by malignant cells metastasizing from systemic cancer. The authors describe a rare case of meningeal carcinomatosis initially appearing as bilateral progressive sensorineural hearing loss. PATIENT: A 57-year-old man with lung cancer was referred to the authors' clinic because of progressive hearing loss, tinnitus, dizziness, and blurred vision for 1 month. RESULTS: magnetic resonance imaging revealed abnormal leptomeningeal enhancement. meningeal carcinomatosis was diagnosed by the detection of malignant cells in the cerebrospinal fluid after lumbar puncture. The patient died 1 year after diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: meningeal carcinomatosis must be considered in the differential diagnosis in cancer patients with bilateral progressive sensorineural hearing loss. gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging is a useful complementary diagnostic tool before lumbar puncture. ( info)

7/166. Scleroderma en coup de sabre with central nervous system involvement.

    We describe a patient with scleroderma en coup de sabre and central nervous system symptoms. She presented with a linear scleroderma on her left paramedian forehead and scalp and suffered from headaches and dizziness. Axial T2-weighted MRI showed a 1 cm, high intense signal abnormality in the medial aspect of the left frontal lobe. ( info)

8/166. Hormonal and cardiovascular reflex assessment in a female patient with pure autonomic failure.

    We report the case of a 72-year-old female with pure autonomic failure, a rare entity, whose diagnosis of autonomic dysfunction was determined with a series of complementary tests. For approximately 2 years, the patient has been experiencing dizziness and a tendency to fall, a significant weight loss, generalized weakness, dysphagia, intestinal constipation, blurred vision, dry mouth, and changes in her voice. She underwent clinical assessment and laboratory tests (biochemical tests, chest X-ray, digestive endoscopy, colonoscopy, chest computed tomography, abdomen and pelvis computed tomography, abdominal ultrasound, and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring). Measurements of catecholamine and plasmatic renin activity were performed at rest and after physical exercise. Finally the patient underwent physiological and pharmacological autonomic tests that better diagnosed dysautonomia. ( info)

9/166. Parietal sinus pericranii: case report and technical note.

    BACKGROUND: sinus pericranii is a rare vascular anomaly that is defined as a group of abnormal communications between the extracranial and intracranial venous systems, usually involving the superior sagittal sinus. Different surgical techniques have been used to manage this anomaly. Surgical technique and radiologic findings are discussed. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A case of parietal sinus pericranii is presented that was developed spontaneously. This 33-year-old woman presented with a soft fluctuant mass in the right parietal region adjacent to the midline. She complained of headache and dizziness. The preoperative radiologic findings of simple skull X-ray, computed tomography, bone scan, and direct venogram are presented.The lesion was removed completely and then multiple small vascular channels through the underlying skull were obliterated by air-powered diamond drilling. The presence of vascular endothelium in the pathologic specimen suggested a congenital origin. CONCLUSION: We think this method is very easy and useful for managing the multiple small fenestrations of the sinus pericranii without recurrence. ( info)

10/166. Cervicogenic dizziness: a review of diagnosis and treatment.

    The diagnosis of cervicogenic dizziness is characterized by dizziness and dysequilibrium that is associated with neck pain in patients with cervical pathology. The diagnosis and treatment of an individual presenting with cervical spine dysfunction and associated dizziness complaints can be a challenging experience to orthopaedic and vestibular rehabilitation specialists. The purpose of this article is to review the incidence and prevalence, historical background, and proposed pathophysiology underlying cervicogenic dizziness. In addition, we have outlined the diagnostic criteria, evaluation, and treatment of dizziness attributed to disorders of the cervical spine. The diagnosis of cervicogenic dizziness is dependent upon correlating symptoms of imbalance and dizziness with neck pain and excluding other vestibular disorders based on history, examination, and vestibular function tests. When diagnosed correctly, cervicogenic dizziness can be successfully treated using a combination of manual therapy and vestibular rehabilitation. We present 2 cases, of patients diagnosed with cervicogenic dizziness, as an illustration of the clinical decision-making process in regard to this diagnosis. ( info)
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