Cases reported "Dyspnea"

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1/1019. A pediatric case of pigeon breeder's disease in nova scotia.

    Pigeon breeder's disease has been reported sporadically in the pediatric population since it was first described in children in 1967. Because of its infrequent occurrence in children, a high level of suspicion is often required before a diagnosis is made. A case of pigeon breeder's disease in a child in nova scotia, where the disease is virtually unseen or at least unrecognized, is described. The need for prompt recognition of the condition is paramount because its complications may be irreversible. ( info)

2/1019. Sudden unexpected death from pulmonary thromboembolism--examination of antemortem chest X-ray.

    An autopsy case of a woman who died suddenly from undiagnosed and untreated pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) on her way home from the hospital is described in this report. She had complained of chest pain and dyspnea on exertion when she visited the hospital and a chest X-ray taken at that time showed remarkable manifestation of right heart failure and PTE, compared with former x-rays taken during previous visits to the hospital. In this report we present the findings of four chest x-rays of this patient, which had been taken both before and after the development of PTE. ( info)

3/1019. A case of eosinophilic myocarditis complicated by Kimura's disease (eosinophilic hyperplastic lymphogranuloma) and erythroderma.

    This report describes a patient with eosinophilic myocarditis complicated by Kimura's disease (eosinophilic hyperplastic lymphogranuloma) and erythroderma. A 50-year-old man presented with a complaint of precordial pain. However, the only abnormal finding on examinatioin was eosinophilia (1617 eosinophils/microl). Three years later, the patient developed chronic eczema, and was diagnosed with erythroderma posteczematosa. One year later, a tumor was detected in the right auricule, and a diagnosis of Kimura's disease was made, based on the biopsy findings. The patient developed progressive dyspnea 6 months later and was found to have cardiomegaly and a depressed left ventricular ejection fraction (17%). A diagnosis of eosinophilic myocarditis was made based on the results of a right ventricular endomyocardial biopsy. The eosinophilic myocarditis and erythrodrema were treated with steroids with improvement of both the eosinophilia and left ventricular function. ( info)

4/1019. Treatment of a large congenital coronary fistula with coil embolization.

    A 77-year-old woman suffering from progressive dyspnea and chest pain for 2 1/2 years was admitted to hospital. There were no ECG changes at exercise test and a dobutamine stress echocardiography was normal. At catheterization, right-sided pressures were within normal limits. coronary angiography revealed a congenital coronary fistula, 3-4 mm in diameter, from the left anterior descending artery to the proximal pulmonary artery. There was no significant rise in blood oxygen saturation in the pulmonary artery. Transcatheter coil embolization was performed in the distal part of the tortuous fistula. Flow ceased within minutes, demonstrating the feasibility and efficacy of this technique for treating large fistulas. ( info)

5/1019. Syphilitic aortic regurgitation. An appraisal of surgical treatment.

    During the 10 years from 1964 to 1973, fifteen patients with severe syphilitic aortic regurgitation were treated surgically at the National Heart Hospital. In thirteen the valve was replaced and in two it was repaired. In addition four had replacement of an aneurysmal ascending aorta with a Dacron graft and seven some form of plastic repair to the coronary ostia. Three patients died within 1 month of surgery and a further six during the follow-up period which varied from 1 to 55 months (mean 25-5). The six survivors have been followed-up for an average of 33 months. Factors contributing to this high mortality were analysed and it was found that the mean duration of effort dyspnoea was 22 months in the survivors compared with 48 months in those who had died. Similarly the average duration of nocturnal dyspnoea was 4 months in the survivors compared with a mean of 8 months in those who had died. Only six out of the fifteen patients had angina; this was present in two of the survivors and in four of the fatalities. The pulse pressure, heart size, and haemodynamic findings were similar in the two groups. The prognostic value of an elevated erythocyte sedimentation rate was also examined. It was concluded that preoperative investigations should include aortography, coronary arteriography, an assessment of left ventricular function, and whenever possible myocardial biopsy. These data were interpreted as suggesting that patients should be referred for surgery at an earlier stage in the disease--certainly before the onset of cardiac failure and--and that if this more aggresive attitude was adopted, as it has been in non-syphilitic cases of aortic valve disease, the present high mortality in this group would be reduced. ( info)

6/1019. Primary amyloidosis presenting as massive cervical lymphadenopathy with severe dyspnea: a case report and review of the literature.

    amyloidosis is an end point of several diseases in which the unifying characteristic is the association and extracellular deposition of the insoluble protein fibrils within various tissues and organs. We have discussed a variety of clinical findings of primary amyloidosis with emphasis on its otolaryngologic manifestations. This case represents the second report in the literature of a neck mass resulting from a plasma cell dyscrasia and the first report of AL disease producing such extensive cervical lymphadenopathy as to cause significant respiratory compromise. ( info)

7/1019. Right lateral transthoracic approach mimicking standard transesophageal echocardiographic views in a patient with giant left atrium.

    We describe the case of a patient with long-standing severe mitral periprosthetic regurgitation and a giant left atrium. The patient was referred for surgery. On the third postoperative day, after resuture of the dehiscence of the valve sewing ring, the patient complained of dyspnea. Transthoracic ultrasound examination was performed to eliminate pleural effusion. The severe right lateral displacement of an aneurysmatic left atrial cavity contacting with the thoracic wall allowed us to obtain excellent images of the posterior cardiac anatomy by a right lateral thoracic view. The new transthoracic approach made it possible to safely assess the atrial side of the mitral prosthesis, eliminating mitral regurgitation after surgery without transesophageal echocardiographic examination. ( info)

8/1019. Forced expiratory wheezes in a patient with dynamic expiratory narrowing of central airways and an oscillating pattern of the flow-volume curve.

    Forced expiratory wheezes (FEW) are common and the pathogenesis of this phenomenon might involve fluttering of the airways, but this theory has not been confirmed in patients. We report a case of a patient with FEW and a normal FEV1 that showed a bronchoscopically confirmed collapse of the trachea and main stem bronchi during forced expiration. Superimposed to the flow-volume curve was an oscillating pattern with a frequency that corresponded well with the wheeze generated during forced expiration. The oscillating pattern in the flow-volume curve and the collapse of the major airways supports the theory of wheezes generated by fluttering airways during forced expiration. Although FEW may be found also in healthy subjects, flow limitation is essential for the generation of FEW. The inclusion of a forced expiratory maneuver in the clinical examination might therefore be helpful in guiding the diagnosis towards airways obstruction. ( info)

9/1019. Intravenous injection of talc-containing drugs intended for oral use. A cause of pulmonary granulomatosis and pulmonary hypertension.

    Clinical and morphologic features are described in two patients known to have repeatedly injected intravenously talc-containing drugs intended for oral use. In one patient severe pulmonary hypertension developed; the talc granulomas in him were located predominantly within the pulmonary arteries. The second patient had normal pulmonary arterial pressures, and the talc granulomas in him were located predominantly in the pulmonary interstitium. Of 19 previously described patients with pulmonary talc granulomas, 12 had morphologic evidence of pulmonary hypertension (in three of severe degree); in each, talc granulomas were located predominantly within the pulmonary arteries. In those without signs of pulmonary hypertension, granulomas were located predominantly in the pulmonary interstitium. Why there are differences in the distribution of the talc granulomas is unclear. It is clear, however, as demonstrated by one of our patients, that severe pulmonary hypertension may be a consequence of intravenous injection of drugs intended for oral use. ( info)

10/1019. Pulmonary intravascular lymphomatosis: presentation with dyspnea and air trapping.

    Intravascular lymphomatosis (IVL) is a rare lymphoid neoplasm that is typically of B-cell lineage and characterized by proliferation of malignant cells within small arterioles, capillaries, and venules. We report a patient with pulmonary IVL who presented clinically with progressive dyspnea, fever, and a dry cough. Pulmonary function tests revealed a marked decrease in diffusion capacity with airflow obstruction and severe air trapping. High-resolution CT (HRCT) of the chest with inspiratory and expiratory images revealed mosaic attenuation consistent with air trapping. Transbronchial biopsies revealed the diagnosis of IVL with capillary expansion in the alveolar and peribronchiolar interstitial tissue. IVL should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a patient with an interstitial lung disease, air trapping on pulmonary function tests, and mosaic attenuation on HRCT. Transbronchial biopsies may be the initial diagnostic procedure of choice. ( info)
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