Cases reported "Echovirus Infections"

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1/76. myocarditis associated with Echo type 7 infection in a leukemic child.

    A 3 1/2-year-old boy, during the course of acute lymphocytic leukemia presented clinical, roentgenological and ECG signs of myocarditis, which disappeared completely within 1 1/2 month. ECHO type 7 virus was isolated from the faeces during the acute stage of the disease and rise in ECHO 7 neutralizing antibodies was demonstrated in paired sera of the patient. This unusual pathogenicity of ECHO 7 virus could be explained with the impairment of the host resistance induced by leukemia and immunosuppressive therapy. ( info)

2/76. Acute onset of type I diabetes mellitus after severe echovirus 9 infection: putative pathogenic pathways.

    enterovirus infections have been implicated in the development of type I diabetes mellitus. They may cause beta cell destruction either by cytolytic infection in the pancreas or indirectly by contributing to autoimmune reactivity. We sought evidence for these 2 mechanisms in a case of acute-onset diabetes mellitus that occurred during severe echovirus 9 infection. The virus was isolated and administered to cultured human beta cells. No viral proliferation was observed, and no beta cell death was induced, while parallel exposure to Coxsackie B virus serotype 3 resulted in viral proliferation and massive beta cell death. Although the viral protein 2C exhibited a sequence similar to that of the beta cell autoantigen glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD(65)), no cross-reactive T cell responses were detected. The patient did not develop antibodies to GAD(65) either. Absence of evidence for direct cytolytic action or an indirect effect through molecular mimicry with GAD(65) in the present case raises the possibility of another indirect pathway through which enteroviruses can cause diabetes mellitus. ( info)

3/76. Neonatal Type I diabetes associated with maternal echovirus 6 infection: a case report.

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Neonatal diabetes mellitus is rare, and it has not been associated with beta-cell autoimmunity. Enteroviral infections during pregnancy have been implicated as a risk factor for the later development of Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. We now report of a baby girl who was born severely growth-retarded with neonatal insulin-deficient diabetes, and look for evidence of intrauterine enteroviral infections and beta-cell targeted autoimmunity. methods: Diabetes-associated autoimmunity was studied by measurement of several types of islet cell reactive autoantibodies. The infant's T-cell responses to insulin and enterovirus antigens were recorded and enterovirus antibodies were measured both from the mother and the child. RESULTS: Several types of diabetes-associated autoantibodies were detected postnatally, including insulin autoantibodies, conventional islet cell autoantibodies and glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies, whereas no autoantibodies were observed in the mother. The infant's T-cells showed reactivity to insulin and purified enterovirus particles. Based on serological studies, the pathogenetic process could have been triggered by an echovirus 6 infection during pregnancy. The patient's diabetes has been permanent, although there were signs of endogenous insulin production for several months. exocrine pancreatic insufficiency was diagnosed at the age of 1 year. CONCLUSION/INTERPRETATION: These observations suggests that enteroviral infections may induce beta-cell autoimmunity even in utero. ( info)

4/76. Echovirus 7 infection and necrotizing enterocolitis-like symptoms in a premature infant.

    Echovirus type 7 has been previously recognized as a virulent serotype in the premature neonate. However, reports of fatal disseminated infections have often been perinatally acquired from symptomatic mothers at the time of delivery. Nosocomial outbreaks in full-term and premature infants have been reported from newborn intensive care units; however, deaths attributed to Echovirus 7 in convalescing prematures are rare in the literature. We report the case of a growing premature neonate presenting with an overwhelming sepsis-like syndrome, including symptoms consistent with necrotizing enterocolitis. Despite intensive supportive care including ventilatory support, cardiovascular pharmacotherapy, and blood product administration, the infant succumbed to overwhelming Echovirus 7 infection. ( info)

5/76. Fatal neonatal echovirus 6 infection: autopsy case report and review of the literature.

    A full-term, healthy male neonate was delivered by caesarian section to a 26-year-old primigravida woman who had a history of fever and upper respiratory tract infection. On the fourth day of life, the neonate developed a sepsis-like syndrome, acute respiratory and renal failure, and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy. He died 13 days after birth. Postmortem examination revealed jaundice, anasarca, massive hepatic necrosis, adrenal hemorrhagic necrosis, renal medullary hemorrhage, hemorrhagic noninflammatory pneumonia, and severe encephalomalacia. Echovirus type 6 was isolated from blood, liver, and lungs. Although uncommon, echovirus type 6 infection may produce a spectrum of pathologic findings similar to those seen with the more commonly virulent echovirus type 11. ( info)

6/76. Severe neonatal enteroviral hepatitis treated with pleconaril.

    Neonatal enteroviral hepatitis carries high morbidity and mortality. We treated three full term neonates with severe enteroviral hepatitis with pleconaril on an open label compassionate use protocol. Each mother had history of a viral-like syndrome within 1 week before delivery. The neonates presented at 4 to 5 days of age with fulminant hepatic failure with severe coagulopathy, and each yielded an echovirus. All were treated with pleconaril (VP63843) at 5 mg/kg every 8 h by nasogastric tube. Two of the three neonates with life-threatening enteroviral hepatitis recovered fully. Further experience with pleconaril for neonatal enteroviral hepatitis is warranted. ( info)

7/76. bone marrow failure with concurrent enteroviral infection in a newborn.

    A newborn baby, with transient pancytopenia concurrent to Echovirus type 11 infection, was hospitalized for fever, diarrhea, rash, generalized petechiae and hepatosplenomegaly. Subsequent investigation showed bone marrow failure. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of bone marrow failure with concomitant enteroviral infection. ( info)

8/76. Acute flaccid paralysis syndrome associated with echovirus 19, managed with pleconaril and intravenous immunoglobulin.

    We describe a 39-year-old woman who had undergone bilateral lung and renal transplantation and who was admitted to the hospital with acute onset of flaccid paralysis of the left leg due to echovirus 19 infection. The patient was treated with pleconaril and intravenous immunoglobulin, which correlated with clinical and laboratory evidence of improvement. ( info)

9/76. Eruptive pseudoangiomatosis.

    We describe two children with acute onset and spontaneous resolution of angioma-like papules during a viral illness. The biopsy specimens from both patients showed a unique histologic appearance consisting of dilated dermal blood vessels with plump, hobnail-shaped endothelial cells. On the basis of the natural history and the histopathologic features we suggest the diagnosis of eruptive pseudoangiomatosis. ( info)

10/76. Application of systolic time intervals to acute cardiomyopathy with echovirous 2.

    The occurrence of echovirus type 2 myocarditis in an adult is reported. myocarditis was substantiated by abnormal electrocardiograms. More important, a prolonged course and severe functional impairment was quantitatively assessed by serial systolic time intervals, even after the ECGs became normal. The patient also had meningitis, hemiparesis, and convulsions. Viral isolation was from the spinal fluid. ( info)
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