Cases reported "Embolism, Amniotic Fluid"

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1/102. Lung mass due to amniotic fluid embolism--an intrathoracic complication of pregnancy.

    A 29-year-old woman with right chest pain was admitted for radiographic investigation and found to have a round mass in the right lower zone. This was initially suspected to be a hydatid lung cyst but was confirmed as a cystic mass by computed tomography and duly excised. Histologic examination revealed an amniotic fluid embolism. The patient had had a stillbirth three months earlier. ( info)

2/102. amniotic fluid embolism: a case report and review.

    A 41-year old primigravida underwent caesarean section because of foetal distress following prostin induction of labour. Intraoperative coagulopathy, haemorrhage and hypotension necessitated a hysterectomy. Subsequently, she developed respiratory and renal failure, requiring mechanical ventilation and haemodialysis. She made a full recovery. The likely diagnosis was amniotic fluid embolism (AFE), a rare complication of pregnancy with a variable presentation, ranging from cardiac arrest and death through to mild degrees of organ system dysfunction with or without coagulopathy. The differential diagnosis includes pre-eclamptic toxaemia/pregnancy-induced hypertension, anaphylaxis and pulmonary embolism. There is no diagnostic test for AFE; the finding of foetal elements in the maternal circulation is non-specific. Historically, AFE was thought to induce cardiovascular collapse by mechanical obstruction of the pulmonary circulation. It is now thought that a combination of left ventricular dysfunction and acute lung injury occur, with activation of several of the clotting factors. An immunological basis for these effects is postulated. There is no specific therapy and treatment is supportive. The mortality of the condition remains high. ( info)

3/102. Occlusions of branch retinal arterioles following amniotic fluid embolism.

    amniotic fluid embolism is a serious complication of pregnancy with a high mortality. We present a 28-year-old healthy woman who underwent dilatation and curettage for an elective abortion, followed by the sudden loss of vision in her left eye. Occlusion of one branch retinal arteriole was the initial finding of her left fundus, and two occlusions developed consecutively on the color fundus photographs. fluorescein angiography demonstrated occlusions in three retinal arterioles among seven retinal arterioles originating from the optic disc. These findings suggest that possible mechanisms of amniotic fluid embolism are the unusual cause in retinal arteriolar occlusions. Here clinical course and ophthalmic findings are reviewed, and the relationship between amniotic fluid embolism and retinal arteriolar occlusions is discussed. ( info)

4/102. amniotic fluid embolism.

    amniotic fluid embolism is a rare occurrence, with no single pathognomonic clinical or laboratory finding. diagnosis is based on clinical presentation and supportive laboratory values. We describe the case of a 17-year-old nulliparous woman at 27 weeks' gestation who had uterine bleeding, hematuria, hemoptysis, hypotension, dyspnea, and hypoxemia within 30 minutes of vaginal delivery. Laboratory values revealed diffuse intravascular coagulation. Chest films were consistent with adult respiratory distress syndrome. pulmonary artery catheterization revealed moderately increased pulmonary capillary wedge pressure. Supportive measures, including oxygenation, fluid resuscitation, and plasma, were administered. Central hemodynamic monitoring and inotropic support were necessary. Our patient recovered uneventfully and 6 weeks later was living an unrestricted life-style. ( info)

5/102. Successful application of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation as lifesaving therapy for a patient with amniotic fluid embolism.

    A woman in labor was noted to have amniotic fluid embolism. extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation were performed post partum, and the vital signs became stable. The ensuing recovery was uneventful. We conclude that extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation should be considered to save the life of a patient with amniotic fluid embolism and left ventricular failure unresponsive to medical therapy. ( info)

6/102. Successful pregnancy after suspected anaphylactoid syndrome of pregnancy (amniotic fluid embolus). A case report.

    BACKGROUND: Limited information is available on the recurrence risk of anaphylactoid syndrome of pregnancy. CASE: A successful pregnancy followed suspected anaphylactoid syndrome of pregnancy. CONCLUSION: A review of the literature revealed five cases of successful subsequent pregnancies following anaphylactoid syndrome of pregnancy. No instances of recurrent anaphylactoid syndrome of pregnancy have been reported. ( info)

7/102. amniotic fluid embolism and isolated coagulopathy: atypical presentation of amniotic fluid embolism.

    A 41-year-old multigravida presented at 32 weeks of gestation with polyhydramnios and an anencephalic fetus. Abnormal bleeding as a result of disseminated intravascular coagulation complicated an emergency Caesarean section for severe abdominal pain thought to be due to uterine rupture. Massive transfusion with blood products was necessary and the abdomen packed to control bleeding. The patient was transferred to the intensive care unit where she made a slow but complete recovery. amniotic fluid embolism with atypical presentation of isolated coagulopathy is the likely diagnosis in this case. The case serves to demonstrate that amniotic fluid embolism may present with symptoms and signs other than the classical pattern of dyspnoea, cyanosis and hypotension. ( info)

8/102. Continuous hemodiafiltration for disseminated intravascular coagulation and shock due to amniotic fluid embolism: report of a dramatic response.

    We describe a 27-year-old woman with disseminated intravascular coagulation and shock due to amniotic fluid embolism after Caesarean section who responded well to continuous hemodiafiltration (CHDF) therapy. The effectiveness of CHDF in treating amniotic fluid embolism is also discussed. ( info)

9/102. serum tryptase analysis in a woman with amniotic fluid embolism. A case report.

    BACKGROUND: Recent studies have noted a striking similarity between amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) and anaphylaxis. serum tryptase levels may therefore serve as a marker of mast cell degranulation in AFE cases. CASE: A 40-year-old woman, gravida 6, para 4, experienced the acute onset of facial erythema, eclampsia-type seizures, severe hypoxia, cardiac arrest and disseminated intravascular coagulation while in early active labor. The patient was declared dead 37 minutes after the onset of resuscitative efforts. At autopsy, fetal squames were found within the pulmonary tree, uterine blood vessels and brain. A peripheral venous blood specimen, obtained approximately one and a half hours postmortem, revealed a tryptase level of 4.7 ng/mL (normal, < 1). CONCLUSION: An elevated serum tryptase level, in conjunction with our patient's clinical history, adds further supporting evidence to the concept of AFE as an anaphylactoid syndrome of pregnancy. ( info)

10/102. Acute circulatory and respiratory collapse in obstetrical patients: a case report and review of the literature.

    Venous air embolism is the entrapment of air into the venous system producing signs and symptoms due to obstruction of pulmonary arterial blood flow. We present a healthy, 27-year-old, full-term parturient admitted for postdate induction of labor. Cesarean delivery was required following fetal distress. During delivery, the mother became bradycardic and required advanced cardiac life support for resuscitation. Serial hemoglobin values, electrocardiograms, echocardiograms, and a magnetic resonance image of the head were all normal. No fetal squamous cells were found in the patient's blood. She required 6 days of ventilation, was successfully extubated, and was discharged 14 days after the cesarean delivery. The differential diagnosis in this patient's care centered on a pulmonary embolic event. thromboembolism was unlikely, based upon the patient's rapid clinical improvement without definitive therapy for thrombotic disease or detection of peripheral thrombosis. amniotic fluid embolus was unlikely, although not excluded, by the absence of fetal cells in the maternal circulation and the lack of an accompanying intravascular coagulopathy. air embolism may occur in up to 50% of women undergoing cesarean delivery. A lethal embolism may follow a bolus of 3 to 5 mL/kg of air. Chief among the many symptoms of air embolism are tachypnea, chest pain, and gasping. The diagnosis may be facilitated by precordial Doppler monitoring, transesophageal echocardiography, or by the identification of air when aspirating from a right heart catheter. Management includes optimum patient positioning, aspiration of air, discontinuation of nitrous oxide, administration of 100% oxygen, and flooding the surgical site with saline to avoid further air entry. Preventive strategies are also discussed. ( info)
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