Cases reported "emergencies"

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1/1689. Ultrasound detection of ventricular fibrillation disguised as asystole.

    ultrasonography in the emergency department is being used for many purposes, including the evaluation of patients with cardiac arrest. Ultrasound testing has been shown to be useful in such patients in determining the presence of true electromechanical dissociation and pericardial effusions. We report a case of ventricular fibrillation identified by ultrasonography that appeared as asystole on ECG monitoring. Recognition of this ultrasound application can aid in the prompt diagnosis of occult ventricular fibrillation and allow for proper treatment with defibrillation. ( info)

2/1689. Emergency resection of distal tracheal stenosis. A case report.

    A case of tracheal stenosis secondary to tracheostomy and respirator treatment is presented. The stenosis caused acute respiratory failure, which made immediate surgical intervention mandatory. It is stressed that usually the tracheal lumen is severely reduced when the stenosis causes alarming symptoms. Rational treatment, which must be instituted immediately, consists of resection of the stenotic area and end-to-end anastomosis. ( info)

3/1689. Emergency cardiopulmonary bypass for cardiac arrest refractory to pediatric advanced life support.

    We report the application of emergent cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) for three pediatric patients in the cardiac catheterization laboratory with cardiac arrest who did not respond to conventional resuscitation efforts. All three patients had return of baseline prearrest rhythms within minutes of the initiation of artificial cardiopulmonary support and the return of spontaneous circulation upon weaning CPB. Two patients had normal neurologic outcomes despite an interval of over 30 minutes from arrest to CPB. The continued judicious application and study of this technology in a small subpopulation of pediatric cardiac arrest patients is warranted. ( info)

4/1689. Pericardial drainage prior to operation contributes to surgical repair of traumatic cardiac injury.

    We report on two cases of successful surgical repair of cardiac injury: one involving a left ventricular stab injury and the other a blunt rupture of the right atrium. Each patient underwent emergency surgical repair, the former via left anterolateral thoracotomy and the latter via median sternotomy, following pericardial drainage tube insertion from the subxiphoid area. The operative approach was chosen according to the color of drained blood, i.e., arterial bleeding indicated left anterolateral thoracotomy, while venous bleeding indicated median sternotomy. We conclude that pericardial drainage via the subxiphoid approach prior to induction of anesthesia is an easy and useful technique to perform, not only to release cardiac tamponade but to determine the operative approach in patients suffering from cardiac tamponade following cardiac injury. ( info)

5/1689. One-stage repair of a massive aortic arch aneurysm.

    A 61-year-old woman with a massive aortic aneurysm extending from the aortic root to the proximal descending thoracic aorta required urgent surgical intervention. She underwent successful replacement of her ascending aorta, transverse arch and descending aorta in a single operation. ( info)

6/1689. Primary percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty performed for acute myocardial infarction in a patient with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura.

    A 72-year-old female with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) complained of severe chest pain. electrocardiography showed ST-segment depression and negative T wave in I, aVL and V4-6. Following a diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), urgent coronary angiography revealed 99% organic stenosis with delayed flow in the proximal segment and 50% in the middle segment of the left anterior descending artery (LAD). Subsequently, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) for the stenosis in the proximal LAD was performed. In the coronary care unit, her blood pressure dropped. Hematomas around the puncture sites were observed and the platelet count was 28,000/mm3. After transfusion, electrocardiography revealed ST-segment elevation in I, aVL and V1-6. Urgent recatheterization disclosed total occlusion in the middle segment of the LAD. Subsequently, PTCA was performed successfully. Then, intravenous immunoglobulin increased the platelet count and the bleeding tendency disappeared. A case of AMI with ITP is rare. The present case suggests that primary PTCA can be a useful therapeutic strategy, but careful attention must be paid to hemostasis and to managing the platelet count. ( info)

7/1689. serotonin syndrome in a child after a single dose of fluvoxamine.

    serotonin syndrome, a potentially fatal iatrogenic complication of psychopharmacologic therapy, is most commonly reported with combinations of serotonergic medications. serotonin syndrome is characterized by alterations in cognition, behavior, autonomic, and central nervous system function as a result of increased postsynaptic serotonin receptor agonism. We present the first reported case of serotonin syndrome after a single dose of fluvoxamine in a pediatric patient after ingestion of a single supratherapeutic dose of fluvoxamine. ( info)

8/1689. Localized tetanus in a child.

    The majority of physicians in practice today in developed countries have never seen a case of tetanus. The last pediatric case reported in canada occurred in 1992. We present the case of a child who had localized tetanus despite previous partial immunization. ( info)

9/1689. An unusual case of orbital hydatid cyst: a surgical emergency.

    A rare case of a 19-year-old man with an orbital hydatid cyst is presented. The lesion caused rapid deterioration of vision and was not responsive to the systemic use of mebendazole. It was treated successfully with emergency surgery. Early detection, surgical excision, and the systemic use of albendazole are suggested for the treatment of orbital hydatid cysts. ( info)

10/1689. Transient peroneal nerve palsies from injuries placed in traction splints.

    Two patients thought to have distal femur fractures presented to the emergency department (ED) of a level 1 trauma center with traction splints applied to their lower extremities. Both patients had varying degrees of peroneal nerve palsies. Neither patient sustained a fracture, but both had a lateral collateral ligament injury and one an associated anterior cruciate ligament tear. One patient had a sensory and motor block, while the other had loss of sensation on the dorsum of his foot. After removal of the traction splint both regained peroneal nerve function within 6 hours. Although assessment of ligamentous knee injuries are not a priority in the trauma setting, clinicians should be aware of this possible complication in a patient with a lateral soft tissue injury to the knee who is placed in a traction splint that is not indicated for immobilization of this type of injury. ( info)
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