Cases reported "Encephalitis, Arbovirus"

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1/40. early diagnosis of Murray Valley encephalitis by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction.

    A 4-year-old aboriginal boy developed encephalitis due to Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVE) following an earlier infection with Kunjin virus (KUN). The illness was severe, resulting in cerebral atrophy and profound physical and intellectual disability. The earlier KUN infection complicated his serological profile and delayed antibody responses to MVE. By contrast, the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay detected MVE in serum 3 days after the onset of illness and 4 days before the appearance of MVE-specific IgM. We suggest that MVE-specific RT-PCR provides rapid and specific diagnosis of MVE and should be used more widely for the diagnosis of acute viral encephalitis in cases originating from flavivirus endemic areas. ( info)

2/40. Murray Valley encephalitis in western australia in 2000, with evidence of southerly spread.

    We describe the epidemiological and clinical features of human Murray Valley encephalitis (MVE) and Kunjin (KUN) virus infections in western australia (WA) during March to July 2000. A case series was performed. For laboratory-confirmed cases, travel histories and clinical details were collected from patients, family members, friends or treating physicians. Surveillance data from the sentinel chicken program and climatic conditions were reviewed. Nine encephalitic cases of MVE were recorded. Eight were non-Aboriginal adults (age range, 25 to 79 years; 5 male, 3 female) and 1 was an Aboriginal boy. Four cases acquired infection in the Murchison and Midwest regions of WA from which no human cases of MVE have been reported previously. One of the 9 cases was fatal and 3 had severe neurological sequelae. Five non-encephalitic infections were also recorded, 3 MVE and 2 KUN. Encephalitis caused by MVE virus remains a serious problem with no improvement in clinical outcomes in the last 25 years. Excessive rainfall with widespread flooding in the northern two-thirds of WA provided ideal conditions for mosquito breeding and favoured southerly spread of the virus into new and more heavily populated areas. Surveillance in WA with sentinel chickens and mosquito trapping needs expansion to define the boundaries of MVE virus activity. To enable timely warnings to the public, and to institute mosquito control where feasible, continued surveillance in all Australian areas at risk is indicated. ( info)

3/40. Neonatal disseminated herpes simplex virus infection with encephalitis treated with cytosine arabinoside.

    herpes simplex encephalitis was diagnosed by immunofluorescence and histology of a brain biopsy on the 19th day of life in a neonate in whom symptoms had begun at 12 days. Treatment with steroid, diuretic and cytosine arabinoside was begun and initially there was dramatic improvement in the symptoms. This improvement was not sustained, however, and the infant developed evidence of severe brain-damage. Disseminated herpes simplex virus infection is discussed and available therapy for this severe disease is outlined. ( info)

4/40. Murray Valley encephalitis: case report and review of neuroradiological features.

    We report on a child with diffuse symmetrical thalamic enlargement and signal increase on MRI, representing changes caused by Murray Valley encephalitis (MVE). Very little has previously been reported on the neuroradiological findings of MVE, also known as Australian encephalitis. It is endemic to tropical North Australia, particularly western australia and the northern territory, but can occur in other parts of Australia. The last epidemic was in south-eastern Australia in 1974. Australian encephalitis is the second most serious acute viral encephalitis to be encountered in Australia. Clinicians need to be aware of MVE in this era of ever-increasing travel. Our aim is to highlight these finding and further define the neuroradiological features. ( info)

5/40. Clinical and laboratory findings on the first imported case of Murray Valley encephalitis in europe.

    Murray Valley encephalitis (MVE) is an important mosquitoborne flavivirus infection endemic to Australia and papua new guinea. We report the first imported case of MVE in europe. A 23-year-old tourist developed severe encephalitis after having returned to germany from a long-term trip across the Australian continent. The diagnosis was suspected on the basis of clinical findings and the patient's travel history and was confirmed by serological findings. The patient made a prolonged but complete recovery. Our case coincides with a recently reported spread of MVE virus in Australia. This emphasizes the need for continuous surveillance in areas of endemicity and appropriate protection when traveling through regions in which the MVE virus is endemic. ( info)

6/40. MR findings in Murray Valley encephalitis.

    Murray Valley encephalitis (MVE) is caused by a flavivirus related to West Nile and St. Louis encephalitis viruses. We report a case of MVE resulting in quadriplegia and respiratory failure. MR imaging demonstrated thalamic hyperintensity on T2-weighted images, with similar involvement of the red nucleus, substantia nigra, and cervical cord. These findings preceded serologic diagnosis and are similar to those of Japanese encephalitis. In the appropriate setting, thalamic T2 hyperintensity is suggestive of flavivirus infection. ( info)

7/40. Atypical affective disorder with episodic dyscontrol: a case of von Economo's disease (encephalitis lethargica).

    The case is described of a patient with atypical affective disorder, episodic behavioural dyscontrol and parkinsonism resulting from presumed encephalitis lethargica. EEG abnormalities were found which were compatible with a post-encephalitic state and suggestive of epileptiform complications. Poor or deleterious response to neuroleptics, sleep disorder, and parkinsonism are features that may allow recognition of this illness in a psychiatric setting. ( info)

8/40. Murray valley encephalitis mimicking herpes simplex encephalitis.

    We describe a patient with serologically proven Murray Valley encephalitis (MVE), whose presentation was clinically and radiologically characteristic of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE). The reports of MRI abnormalities in MVE, and the closely related Japanese Encephalitis and West Nile virusii are mostly of bilateral thalamic or grey matter involvement. The MRI scan findings in this case instead showed the typical temporal lobe changes of HSE. Our case report highlights that MVE can mimic HSE, both clinically and radiologically. Therefore it is important to collect an accurate and detailed travel history from patients where there is a risk of exposure to MVE virus. If suspected, antibody testing of serum and CSF, and CSF for MVE-rna if available, should be undertaken. This case also highlights the potential under-diagnosis of Murray Valley encephalitis. ( info)

9/40. Cognitive recovery from Encephalitis Lethargica.

    The cognitive profile and outcome of Encephalitis Lethargica has not been systematically described in the literature. Treatment has typically focused upon medical management. The first case report of a patient with Encephalitis Lethargica who underwent a systematic programme of cognitive rehabilitation is presented. Initial neuropsychological assessment conducted during her acute presentation indicated generalized cognitive dysfunction, including memory and executive function impairments. An outpatient cognitive rehabilitation programme addressed the development of awareness and the remediation of memory and executive function impairments. Repeat assessment indicated significant improvement in cognitive function. The components of her rehabilitation programme are discussed. She has been able to successfully return to her pre-morbid level of work responsibility within 8 months of her admission. ( info)

10/40. cytarabine treatment of herpes simplex encephalitis in infants and small children. A report on three cases with a short review of the literature.

    Three cytarabine-treated infants and children with herpes simplex encephalitis are presented. The effect of the treatment was excellent in 2 cases. One boy who had a CP syndrome died. It is assumed that the treatment with cytarabine should be started as early as possible with a dosage of 3 mg/kg body weight given intravenously once a day in a single injection for 5 days. No serious side effects have been noted. The advantage of cytarabine over idoxuridine, especially when treating small children and herpetic infections in the central nervous system, are emphasized. ( info)
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