Cases reported "Enterovirus Infections"

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1/78. Outbreak of severe neurologic involvement associated with enterovirus 71 infection.

    enterovirus 71 has been associated with several outbreaks, as well as sporadic cases, of central nervous system infection and has a worldwide distribution. Seven children with encephalitis and five with aseptic meningitis caused by enterovirus 71 were seen at Otsu Municipal Hospital during the summer of 1997. The infections were confirmed serologically, although detection of the viral genome in cerebrospinal fluid was unsuccessful. Seven children were diagnosed as having hand-foot-and-mouth syndrome, two were diagnosed as having herpangina, and three patients younger than 12 months old developed no eruptions. The skin or mucosal manifestations of this outbreak demonstrated considerable variation. The enterovirus 71 strain that caused the outbreak had a strong neurovirulent tendency. Among the patients with encephalitis, symptoms originating from the impairment of diencephalon were seen in four patients, and those originating from cerebellar impairment were seen in two patients. Brain magnetic resonance imaging in one patient revealed an abnormality in the pons. The neurologic manifestations associated with enterovirus 71 infection may be characterized by involvement of the cerebellum, brainstem, and diencephalon. enterovirus 71 is one of the pathogenic viruses that cause hand-foot-and-mouth syndrome, as well as a variety of other clinical manifestations. The most important of these is neurologic disease, especially in infants and young children. ( info)

2/78. Enteroviral meningoencephalitis as a complication of X-linked hyper IgM syndrome.

    We describe 5 children from 2 families with mutations in the cd40 ligand (CD40L) gene leading to absent expression of CD40L on activated CD4 cells. All subjects presented with interstitial pneumonia with low serum IgG and normal serum IgM. One child had normal and one child had elevated serum IgA. Four had confirmed pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. In spite of intravenous immunoglobulin treatment yielding therapeutic serum immunoglobulin levels, 3 children had enteroviral encephalitis. When assessed by flow cytometry, the 3 surviving affected male children had absent CD40L expression on activated CD4( ) T cells. The affected children from both families were shown to have the same single nucleotide insertion (codon 131) resulting in frameshift and early termination within exon 4 (extracellular domain). This observation demonstrates that persistent enteroviral infection is not only observed in X-linked agammaglobulinemia but may also occur in patients with X-linked hyper IgM syndrome. ( info)

3/78. Sequential peripartum herpes simplex virus type 2 disease in parents and their newborn mimicking intrafamily spread of common viruses.

    herpes simplex type 2 (HSV2) disease developed sequentially among two parents and their newborn. The father first became ill with upper-respiratory symptoms and fever. Then, 5 days later, shortly after delivery, the mother had fever, pharyngitis, and diarrhea. Subsequently, the infant developed undifferentiated febrile illness at the age of 3 days. HSV etiology was recognized by incidental isolation of HSV2 from the newborn naospharynx. The father never developed genital lesions and the mother's symptoms remained nonspecific for several days prior to the onset of genital manifestations. The sequential emergence and manifestations of these infections could have been misconstrued for an intrafamily spread of respiratory or enteric viruses. This cluster illustrates that HSV2 may cause sequential symptomatic disease in susceptible individuals mimicking other viruses. ( info)

4/78. The use of molecular technologies for the detection of enteroviral ribonucleic acid in myocarditis.

    The introduction of molecular technology to the field of cardiovascular research has revolutionized the diagnosis and determination of the pathogenesis of diseases. This has been the case for viral myocarditis. Although rapid identification and specific treatment for viral disorders such as myocarditis continue to challenge researchers, molecular detection techniques have provided an insight into the role of viral genomes in this disorder. Although in situ hybridization (ISH) continues to be an effective detection method and is utilized in many laboratories, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques are fast becoming the standard for molecular analysis in patients with viral myocarditis. Following a review of viral myocarditis, the roles of ISH and PCR will be discussed. Lastly, clinical relevance and areas of future research will be presented. ( info)

5/78. myocardial infarction complicating neonatal enterovirus myocarditis.

    A 10-week-old, 31-week gestation preterm boy re-presented with heart failure after an initial episode of neonatal aseptic meningitis with positive CSF enterovirus polymerase chain reaction. Investigation demonstrated global myocardial dysfunction with left ventricle posterolateral myocardial infarction. The boy's heart failure was controlled with medical treatment but his myocardial dysfunction persisted 9 months after presentation. ( info)

6/78. intussusception in a child infected with enterovirus: case report.

    Most intussusceptions in childhood are idiopathic. The association of viral infection has been suspected for decades. We report a case of ileocolonic intussusception in a child during a course of enterovirus infection. A 20-month-old girl with vomiting and irritable crying of 4 days' duration was found to have intussusception by sonography. She had suffered from herpangina one week earlier. Due to her peritoneal signs, she underwent surgical manual reduction. A cluster of enlarged lymph nodes in the intussuscipiens was noted preoperatively by high resolution ultrasound. Two swollen lymph nodes were removed for pathologic evaluation and examined for a viral genome by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. Panenterovirus base pairs were confirmed on the electrophoresis print. During postoperative sonographic follow-up, significant shrinkage of previous mesenteric lymphoid hyperplasia was observed. In this article, we present the first case of childhood intussusception in associated with enterovirus infection, in which the panenterovirus genome was identified in the patient's mesenteric lymph nodes. This was also the first evaluation of the role of mesenteric lymph nodes in intussusception by high resolution sonography. ( info)

7/78. Bilateral hippocampal encephalitis caused by enteroviral infection.

    Nonpolio enteroviral encephalitis usually presents as a diffuse, generalized encephalitis. Focal cerebral involvement by nonpolioviruses is uncommon, and neuroradiologic studies in these cases are usually normal. The authors present a case of a 5-year-old male with an acute encephalitic illness and bilateral lesions of the hippocampi on magnetic resonance imaging. Enteroviral nucleic acids were detected in the cerebrospinal fluid by the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The findings suggest that enteroviral infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute bilateral hippocampal encephalitis in patients in whom polymerase chain reaction fails to demonstrate the presence of herpes simplex virus. ( info)

8/78. MRI of enterovirus 71 myelitis with monoplegia.

    We report two boys diagnosed as having herpangina and hand-foot-mouth disease complicated by monoplegia during the outbreak enterovirus infection in taiwan in 1998. enterovirus 71 was identified in the stool and throat swab; neither polio nor Coxsackie viruses was identified. MRI showed unilateral lesions in the anterior horns of the spinal cord at T11-12 and C2-5. Although the MRI findings and sites of these lesions were similar to those of poliovirus-associated poliomyelitis, the virological data indicated that these boys were infected with enterovirus type 71. ( info)

9/78. An outbreak of enterovirus 71 infection in taiwan 1998: a comprehensive pathological, virological, and molecular study on a case of fulminant encephalitis.

    BACKGROUND: In a recent enterovirus outbreak in taiwan, serotype 71 was the culprit of encephalitis causing rapid clinical deterioration and death among young children. OBJECTIVES: Since knowledge of enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection in the central nervous system is still limited, the purpose of the present case study was attempted to uncover the pathogenesis of the virus. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a detailed pathological examination, virological and molecular studies on a case of EV71 infection with a rapidly fatal outcome. In addition, the whole genome of the virus was sequenced to determine the genetic relationships to other enteroviruses and two other EV71 strains (a prototype BrCr and a neurovirulent MS strain), and to provide the genetic basis of its neurovirulence of the new isolate, NCKU9822 strain. RESULTS: Characteristic features of acute encephalomyelitis were observed, with most prominent lesions in the spinal cord and brain stem. Mild myocarditis and pancreatitis were also noticed. EV71 antigen was localized to neurons on immunohistochemical staining. EV71 was recovered from all organs with inflammatory reaction. sequence analysis showed that overall NCKU9822 and the two EV71 strains shared 80% nucleotide identity and 95% amino acid identity. It had only 45% amino acid and 52% nucleotide identities with polioviral P1 capsid region. CONCLUSION: The spinal cord and brain stem were the main targets of EV71 in the fatal cases in this outbreak, however, heart and pancreas might also be involved. Since the amino acid sequences in the P1 region are conserved (97% identity) among the three EV71 strains as compared to other enteroviruses and polioviruses, these EV71 neurovirulent strains might share the same mechanisms of neurovirulence, and the mechanisms might be different from those in polioviruses. ( info)

10/78. Enteroviral meningoencephalitis in immunocompromised children after matched unrelated donor-bone marrow transplantation.

    Two children are described who presented with fever and generalized seizures, days 50 and 200, respectively, after matched unrelated donor-bone marrow transplantation. Upon antiepileptic treatment the seizures vanished but somnolence and fever remained. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain was performed and revealed transient asymmetric multifocal hyperintense lesions. seizures were considered related to infection, and the cyclosporin A (CsA) treatment was not interrupted. enterovirus was detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in the spinal fluid of one patient and in the sputum of the other. Both children recovered completely within the next weeks without neurological sequel. This report shows that enteroviral meningoencephalitis can present with seizures during the post-transplant period. It highlights the importance of MRI for neuroimaging and of viral infections as differential diagnosis to CsA neurotoxicity. ( info)
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