Cases reported "Epilepsy"

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1/2235. Automatisms during frontal lobe epileptic seizures.

    Three new cases of automatisms occurring during frontal lobe epileptic seizures are reported. If these cases are added to those already published and adequately described in the literature, a total of 12 cases is obtained. An attempt is made to elucidate the clinical characteristics of automatisms encountered during frontal lobe seizures. This kind of automatism would seem to be clinically distinguishable from other types. ( info)

2/2235. Surgical management of pediatric tumor-associated epilepsy.

    brain tumors are a common cause of seizures in children. Early surgical treatment can improve seizure outcome, but controversy exists regarding the most appropriate type of surgical intervention. Some studies suggest tumor resection alone is sufficient, while others recommend mapping and resection of the surrounding epileptogenic foci to optimize seizure outcome. To address this issue, we reviewed the charts of 34 pediatric patients aged 18 months to 20 years with medically intractable epilepsy and primary brain tumors. The average age at operation was 12.6 years, and patients had seizures for an average of 6.4 years. The majority of tumors were located in the temporal lobe. Seventeen patients, because of tumor location near an eloquent area, underwent extraoperative mapping using subdural electrode grids prior to definitive tumor resection. Fourteen of these patients had a gross total tumor resection, yet only two had a distinct zone of ictal onset identified and resected. The remaining 17 patients had tumors either in the nondominant hemisphere or far removed from speech-sensitive areas, and therefore did not undergo extraoperative subdural electroencephalograph mapping. Fourteen of these patients also had a gross total tumor resection, while none had intraoperative electrocorticography to guide the resection of additional nontumoral tissue. overall, of the 28 patients treated with a gross total tumor resection, 24 (86%) are seizure free, while the other four are significantly improved. Of the six patients who had a subtotal tumor removal, five have persistent seizures. The mean follow-up was 3.6 years. We conclude that in children and adolescents, completeness of tumor resection is the most important factor in determining seizure outcome. The routine mapping and resection of epileptogenic foci might not be necessary in the majority of patients. As a corollary, the use of subdural electrode grids in pediatric patients with tumor-associated epilepsy should be limited to cases requiring extraoperative cortical stimulation for localization of nearby eloquent cortex. ( info)

3/2235. Dilantin jeopardy: avoiding the dangers of phenytoin.

    phenytoin sodium (Dilantin), is a widely known anticonvulsant medication that can cause serious side effects and interactions with numerous other medications. nurses should thoroughly familiarize themselves with this medication's properties in order to practice safely. ( info)

4/2235. Schinzel-Giedion syndrome: evidence for a neurodegenerative process.

    We report on a case of Schinzel-Giedion syndrome in which serial magnetic resonance (MR) brain-imaging studies demonstrated a progressive neurodegenerative process. These findings in addition to "coarse" facial appearance and skeletal abnormality suggest that a progressive metabolic defect underlies this syndrome. However, results of detailed investigations for metabolic disorder were all normal. ( info)

5/2235. Characterization of nodular neuronal heterotopia in children.

    Neuronal heterotopia are seen in various pathologies and are associated with intractable epilepsy. We examined brain tissue from four children with subcortical or periventricular nodular heterotopia of different aetiologies: one with severe epilepsy following focal brain trauma at 17 weeks gestation, one with hemimegalencephaly and intractable epilepsy, one with focal cortical dysplasia and intractable epilepsy, and one dysmorphic term infant with associated hydrocephalus and polymicrogyria. The connectivity of nodules was investigated using histological and carbocyanine dye (DiI) tracing techniques. DiI crystal placement adjacent to heterotopic nodules revealed numerous DiI-labelled fibres within a 2-3 mm radius of the crystals. Although we observed labelled fibres closely surrounding nodules, the majority did not penetrate them. Placement of DiI crystals within nodules also identified a limited number of projections out of the nodules and in one case there was evidence for connectivity between adjacent nodules. The cellular and neurochemical composition of nodules was also examined using immunohistochemistry for calretinin and neuropeptide y (NPY), which are normally expressed in GABAergic cortical interneurons. Within heterotopic nodules from all cases, numerous calretinin-positive neurons were identified, along with a few cell bodies and many processes positive for NPY. Calretinin-positive neurons within nodules were less morphologically complex than those in the cortex, which may reflect incomplete differentiation into an inhibitory neuronal phenotype. There were also abnormal clusters of calretinin-positive cells in the overlying cortical plate, indicating that the migratory defect which produces heterotopic nodules also affects development of the cortex itself. Thus, heterotopic nodules consisting of multiple neuronal cell types are associated with malformation in the overlying cortical plate, and have limited connectivity with other brain regions. This abnormal development of connectivity may affect neuronal maturation and consequently the balance of excitation and inhibition in neuronal circuits, leading to their epileptogenic potential. ( info)

6/2235. phenytoin-associated thrombocytopenia in a toddler.

    Hematologic side effects are rare side effects of treatment with phenytoin. We report a 2-year-old girl who developed reversible thrombocytopenia following treatment with phenytoin. thrombocytopenia as a side effect of phenytoin treatment has usually been reported in adults and generally occurs 2 to 4 weeks after initiation of therapy. In our case, the thrombocytopenia developed on the 11th day of therapy and resolved 5 days after discontinuation of the phenytoin. ( info)

7/2235. Lamotrigine associated with insomnia.

    PURPOSE: To review the incidence of lamotrigine (LTG)-associated insomnia in an adult tertiary care epilepsy outpatient clinic. methods: The records of all patients who had received LTG were reviewed to identify patients who had experienced insomnia after introduction of this drug. patients were included if they had experienced a sleep disturbance of sufficient severity to require a discontinuation of LTG or a dose reduction. RESULTS: Among 109 patients exposed to LTG, seven (6.4%) had a sleep disturbance of a severity to required a change in therapy. The descriptions of the sleep disturbance were similar among the patients, and the LTG-induced insomnia appeared to be dose dependent. Unlike the few previous descriptions of LTG-induced insomnia in the literature, no factors predisposing to this adverse effect were identified. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this retrospective review suggest an association between LTG and intolerable insomnia in a small proportion of patients. physicians should inquire about sleep disturbances in patients treated with LTG. ( info)

8/2235. Surgical treatment of a case of early infantile epileptic encephalopathy with suppression-bursts associated with focal cortical dysplasia.

    We report a surgically treated case of early infantile epileptic encephalopathy (EIEE) with suppression-bursts associated with focal cortical dysplasia. Tonic-clonic seizures followed by a series of spasms occurred about a hundred times a day at a few days of age. Interictal electroencephalogram (EEG) revealed a suppression-burst pattern that was predominant in the left hemisphere. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) suggested focal cortical dysplasia in the left prefrontal area. Combination therapies with antiepileptic treatments showed only partial efficacy. The patient underwent lesionectomy at age 4 months, after which he gradually showed psychomotor development and a decrease of spasms to 0-2 series daily. In cases of EIEE with focal cortical dysplasia, surgical treatment may have beneficial effects on both psychomotor development and seizure control. ( info)

9/2235. Benign idiopathic partial epilepsy and brain lesion.

    A 14-year-old girl had severe head trauma from a dog bite at the age of 9 days. This resulted in extensive brain damage, tetraplegia, mental retardation, and epilepsy. The seizures were of rolandic type, and the EEG showed multifocal sharp waves. The course was benign. The initial diagnosis of a pure symptomatic epilepsy was revised after demonstrating typical benign focal sharp waves in the EEG of the healthy sister. Thus a phenocopy of a benign partial epilepsy by the brain lesion could be excluded with sufficient certainty. This observation allows the conclusion that the genetic disposition underlying the sharp-wave trait characteristic of benign partial epilepsies can be involved also in the pathogenesis of seemingly pure symptomatic epilepsies. EEG studies on siblings of such patients are needed to exclude possible phenocopies. ( info)

10/2235. Possibilities of non-pharmacological conservative treatment of epilepsy.

    This study set out to assess the effect of non-pharmacological conservative (NPC) interventions as alternatives to antiepileptic pharmacotherapy. A prospective follow-up cohort study was conducted in an outpatient seizure clinic of a referral center for epilepsy. Twenty-five patients (nine males, 16 females) aged 16-45, with at least two well-described epileptic seizures, were included who had rejected antiepileptic pharmacotherapy. Twelve had idiopathic generalized epilepsy, 11 had symptomatic or cryptogenic localization-related epilepsy, and two had epilepsy with generalized and focal signs. Twenty-three of the patients were followed for more than 2 years. The patients were treated with arrest after focal seizure onset (2 cases), sensory protection against reflex seizures (3 cases), avoidance of non-specific seizure-precipitating factors ('life hygiene', 16 cases), and/or miscellaneous interventions (8 cases). The main outcome measures were complete seizure control (more than 2 years) or sufficient improvement to continue with NPC treatment alone. Eight of the 23 patients were completely seizure free for more than 4 years, and three were sufficiently improved to continue NPC treatment without drugs. Trends were observed for patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsies with less than seven convulsive seizures, and with only one seizure type to respond better to NPC treatment. The duration of epilepsy, and the finding of generalized epileptiform discharge in the EEG had no influence on the outcome. Rational NPC treatments which are aimed at specific factors in the precipitation and development of epileptic seizures can be useful therapeutic alternatives for patients with milder forms of epilepsy. Apart from photosensitive patients, those most likely to profit are patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy, a maximum of six generalized tonic-clonic seizures which were precipitated by lack of sleep or excessive alcohol intake, and with no or rare concomitant absences. In such cases, NPC treatment may be as effective as pharmacotherapy and gives the patient a positive experience of regained self-control. ( info)
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