Cases reported "Facial Neuralgia"

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1/56. The interdisciplinary approach to oral, facial and head pain.

    BACKGROUND: Chronic oral, facial and head pain is a common clinical problem, and appropriate diagnosis and management are a challenge for health care professionals. patients often will first seek the care of dentists because of the pain's localization in the oral cavity and surrounding structures. This article emphasizes the importance of establishing accurate diagnoses and conducting appropriate triage of the patient with complex orofacial pain. CASE DESCRIPTIONS: The authors present two case reports illustrating the complex nature of oral, facial and head pain, and the potential and actual pitfalls in management of this condition. These representative cases demonstrate how orofacial pain--which appears to be localized in the peripheral dental and oral structures--can have extremely complex etiologies involving other anatomical structures, the central nervous system and psychological factors. The reports point to the need for the expertise of a number of specialists in such cases. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: If the symptoms and clinical findings do not appear to be consistent with typical oral disease, or if standard treatments do not alleviate the pain, the dental clinician must consider other, more complex orofacial pain diagnoses. The dental professional should not hesitate to make referrals to key specialists or to members of an interdisciplinary team at a pain treatment center who have the expertise to appropriately diagnose and manage chronic oral, facial and head pain. ( info)

2/56. Persistent facial pain following microvascular decompression of the trigeminal nerve.

    Pain in the face following microvascular decompression (MVD) can be due to persisting trigeminal neuralgia (TGN) or a variety of other facial pain syndromes. If magnetic resonance tomoangiography (MRTA) indicates continuing vascular compression and the patient has true persistent TGN, then the patient can be relieved of pain by repeating the MVD. When the MRTA is negative for continuing compression alternative techniques may be employed; section of the nerve at the pons may be the treatment of choice for true persistent TGN in the absence of neurovascular compression. In some cases the pain is dysaesthetic in nature and not persistent TGN. This is always associated with previous destructive lesions to the nerve, usually radio-frequency thermocoagulation. When this component to the pain is recognized pre-operatively the patient must be warned not to expect relief of this same component of the pain from MVD. When it is not possible to classify the facial pain clinically, improvement does not occur following MVD even when there is clear evidence of vascular compression on MRTA. ( info)

3/56. A spectrum of exertional headaches.

    Headaches that have an explosive onset with exercise, including sexual activity, generally are benign in origin. A subarachnoid hemorrhage, a mass lesion in the brain, or an anomaly of the posterior fossa must be considered, however. The mechanisms that produce sexually induced or cough headaches of abrupt onset are unknown. It is known, however, that a rapid increase in intrathoracic pressure suddenly reduces right atrial pressure and presumably decreases venous sinus drainage from the brain. This situation results in a transient increase in intracranial pressure. jaw pain that occurs with chewing often is considered to be TMJ dysfunction when arthritic in quality and if subluxations of the jaw can be shown on the physical examination. giant cell arteritis and common or external carotid artery occlusive disease should be considered when the pain is ischemic in quality. An anginal equivalent is another possibility. Headaches that worsen with vigorous exercise are commonly migrainous. When their onset is apoplectic with exertion (particularly exertion against a closed glottis), the most likely diagnoses are increased intracranial pressure, a posterior fossa abnormality, or benign exertional headaches. Most cardiac induced headaches, but not all, are of a more gradual onset. If there are significant risk factors for coronary artery disease, an exercise stress test is appropriate. A therapeutic trial of nitroglycerin may help to establish a diagnosis if it improves the headache. Using antimigraine drugs as a diagnostic test is inappropriate because triptans and ergots are contraindicated in the presence of coronary artery disease, and a positive response is not diagnostic of migraine. ( info)

4/56. Enigmatic pain referred to the teeth and jaws.

    A number of obscure syndromes can mimic dental or jaw pain in the absence of pathosis within these structures. This enigmatic dental pain includes conditions such as pretrigeminal neuralgia, complex regional pain syndrome, temporal tendinitis, and carotodynia. Each of these syndromes is described through a pertinent case report to illustrate appropriate diagnosis and treatment. ( info)

5/56. Infraorbital nerve palsy: a complication of laser in situ keratomileusis.

    PURPOSE: To report infraorbital nerve dysfunction after laser in situ keratomileusis. DESIGN: Observational case report. methods: Neuro-ophthalmologic examination with brain and orbital magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and orbital computed tomography (CT). RESULTS: During laser in situ keratomileusis, two healthy women, aged 42 and 46 years, experienced acute onset of sharp ipsilateral cheek pain. Both cases occurred during manipulation of the eyelid speculum. Postoperatively, ipsilateral numbness and tingling or pain of the upper cheek was reported, and examination showed decreased sensation in the distribution of the infraorbital nerve. In both cases, brain and orbit MRI and orbit CT were normal. Both patients were managed medically. In one patient, mild symptoms persisted 1 year postoperatively, and in the second patient, moderate discomfort persisted 8 months postoperatively. CONCLUSION: Infraorbital nerve palsy is a potential complication of laser in situ keratomileusis. Symptoms improve but may persist. ( info)

6/56. motor cortex stimulation for neuropathic facial pain.

    facial neuralgia is the last common pathway for a variety of pathological conditions with different etiology. Neuropathic facial pain is often refractory to routine medical or surgical treatments. We present here a long-term follow-up of two patients with unilateral facial neuropathic pain due to idiopathic trigeminal neuropathy or to surgical trauma to the glossopharyngeal nerve, respectively. These patients have been treated by other modalities for several years without obtaining satisfactory pain relief. Electrical stimulation of the motor cortex (MCS) with a quadripolar electrode contralateral to the painful area of the face was attempted in both cases for control of the facial pain, and resulted in immediate analgesia with more than 50% pain reduction. During a follow-up period of 72 months, a sufficient (> 50%) and stable analgesic effect of MCS was observed. These cases are discussed and the recent literature on MCS is reviewed in an attempt to identify indications for MCS as well as key structures in the brain for mediating the MCS effect. ( info)

7/56. Chronic varicella-zoster virus ganglionitis--a possible cause of postherpetic neuralgia.

    Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is dermatomal distribution pain that persists for months to years after the resolution of herpes zoster rash. The cause of PHN is unknown. Herein, we report clinical, molecular virological, and immunological findings over an 11-year period in an immunocompetent elderly woman with PHN. Initially, blood mononuclear cells (MNCs) contained varicella-zoster virus (VZV) dna on two consecutive occasions. Random testing after treatment with famciclovir to relieve pain did not detect VZV dna. However, the patient was reluctant to continue famciclovir indefinitely and voluntarily stopped drug treatment five times. Pain always recurred within 1 week, and blood MNCs contained many, but not all, regions of the VZV genome on all five occasions. Immunological analysis revealed increased cell-mediated immunity to VZV. Chronic VZV ganglionitis-induced PHN best explains the recurrence of VZV dna in MNCs whenever famciclovir was discontinued; the detection of only some regions of the viral genome in MNCs, compared to the detection of all regions of the VZV genome in latently infected ganglia; the increased cell-mediated immunity to VZV; and a gratifying clinical response to famciclovir. The presence of fragments of VZV dna in MNCs likely represents partial degradation of viral dna in MNCs that trafficked through ganglia during productive infection. ( info)

8/56. Oral and maxillofacial surgery in patients with chronic orofacial pain.

    PURPOSE: In this investigation, we evaluated a population of patients with chronic orofacial pain who sought treatment at a pain center in an academic institution. These patients were evaluated with respect to 1) the frequency and types of previous oral and maxillofacial surgery procedures, 2) the frequency of previous significant misdiagnoses, and 3) the number of patients who subsequently required surgical treatment as recommended by an interdisciplinary orofacial pain team. The major goal of this investigation was to determine the role of oral and maxillofacial surgery in patients with chronic orofacial pain. patients and methods: The study population included patients seen at the Center for Oral, Facial and Head Pain at new york Presbyterian Hospital from January 1999 through April 2001. (120 patients; female-to-male ratio, 3:1; mean age, 49 years; average pain duration, 81 months; average number of previous specialists, 6). The patient population was evaluated by an interdisciplinary orofacial pain team and the following characteristics of this population were profiled: 1) the frequency and types of previous surgical procedures, 2) diagnoses, 3) the frequency of previous misdiagnoses, and 4) treatment recommendations made by the center team. RESULTS: There was a history of previous oral and maxillofacial surgical procedures in 38 of 120 patients (32%). Procedures performed before our evaluation included endodontics (30%), extractions (27%), apicoectomies (12%), temporomandibular joint (TMJ) surgery (6%), neurolysis (5%), orthognathic surgery (3%), and debridement of bone cavities (2%). Surgical intervention clearly exacerbated pain in 21 of 38 patients (55%) who had undergone surgery. Diagnoses included myofascial pain (50%), atypical facial neuralgia (40%), depression (30%), TMJ synovitis (14%), TMJ osteoarthritis (12%), trigeminal neuralgia (10%), and TMJ fibrosis (2%). Treatment recommendations included medications (91%), physical therapy (36%), psychiatric management (30%), trigger injections (15%), oral appliances (13%), biofeedback (13%), acupuncture (8%), surgery (4%), and Botox injections (1%) (Allergan Inc, Irvine, CA). Gross misdiagnosis leading to serious sequelae, with delay of necessary treatment, occurred in 6 of 120 patients (5%). CONCLUSIONS: Misdiagnosis and multiple failed treatments were common in these patients with chronic orofacial pain. These patients often have multiple diagnoses, requiring management by multiple disciplines. Surgery, when indicated, must be based on a specific diagnosis that is amenable to surgical therapy. However, surgical treatment was rarely indicated as a treatment for pain relief in these patients with chronic orofacial pain, and it exacerbated and perpetuated pain symptoms in some of them. ( info)

9/56. Regional head and face pain relief following lower cervical intramuscular anesthetic injection.

    BACKGROUND: Although cervical trigger point intramuscular injections are commonly used to relieve localized neck pain, regional head pain relief from lower cervical paravertebral injections has not been reported previously. PURPOSE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of such injections in a selected group of patients with intractable head or face pain. methods: In a series of patients with chronic head or face pain, local anesthetic was injected into the lower cervical spine paravertebral musculature approximately 1 to 2 inches lateral to the seventh cervical spinous process. RESULTS: In addition to producing rapid relief of palpable scalp or facial tenderness (mechanical hyperalgesia and allodynia pain), this lower cervical intramuscular injection technique alleviated associated symptoms of nausea, photophobia, and phonophobia in patients with migrainous headache. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that lower cervical intramuscular anesthetic injection may be an effective treatment for head or face pain. ( info)

10/56. sunct syndrome in association with persistent horner syndrome in a Chinese patient.

    This is the first case report of a chinese patient with SUNCT (shortlasting, unilateral, neuralgiform headache attacks with conjunctival injection and tearing) presenting with persistent Horner's syndrome. She had episodic, brief, right periorbital pain in association with ipsilateral eye injection, lacrimation and rhinorrhea as well as persistent ipsilateral miosis and ptosis. She had partial response to a combination of indomethacin and carbamazepine therapy. ( info)
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