Cases reported "Fanconi Syndrome"

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1/194. Lambda light chain induced nephropathy: a rare cause of the fanconi syndrome and severe osteomalacia.

    The fanconi syndrome is a generalized disorder of proximal renal tubular transport characterized by wasting of phosphate, amino acids, glucose, bicarbonate, and uric acid. The association of the acquired fanconi syndrome with lambda light-chain proteinuria is rare. We report the third case in the English language literature. A 65-year-old man presented with severe pelvic pain. Investigations showed an elevated serum creatinine level, and a 24-hour urine collection contained 2.56 g protein. The fanconi syndrome was diagnosed, with findings of phosphaturia, glycosuria, and aminoaciduria. bence jones protein (lambda sub-type) was present in the urine at a concentration of 0.58 g/L. Monocytic cells in the bone marrow and proximal tubular cells in the kidney contained cytoplasmic crystalline inclusions. Undecalcified bone sections confirmed the clinical diagnosis of osteomalacia. The patient was treated with phosphate, calcium, and ergocalciferol and experienced significant symptomatic improvement. The fanconi syndrome caused by light-chain deposition in proximal tubular cells is well described in the literature. However, it is rare for the light chains to be of the lambda subtype. This may reflect differences in the physicochemical properties of kappa and lambda light chains. ( info)

2/194. Juvenile nephronophthisis associated with retinal pigmentary dystrophy, cerebellar ataxia, and skeletal abnormalities.

    A boy aged 9 3/4 years with interstitial nephritis, retinal pigmentary dystrophy, cerebellar ataxia, and skeletal abnormalities is described. The association may be due to a new genetic disorder, since 2 similar cases have been reported. ( info)

3/194. Neonatal diabetes mellitus with hypergalactosemia.

    We report the case of a male, small-for-gestational-age newborn who presented with failure to thrive, severe fluctuation of blood glucose concentrations, and increased serum concentrations of galactose. The infant responded well to a lactose-free diet supplemented with fructose, inulin and corn starch. The metabolic disorder disappeared within 6 months. The transient course, and results of a molecular analysis of the glucose transporter 2 (Glut2) gene seem to rule out Fanconi-Bickel syndrome. ( info)

4/194. Longterm treatment of psoriasis using fumaric acid preparations can be associated with severe proximal tubular damage.

    Fumaric acid preparations are used as longterm and effective treatment of psoriasis. Apart from gastrointestinal, dermatological and hematological side-effects, transient renal damage was observed during treatment with fumaric acid. The case of a 38 year old woman who was treated with fumaric acid (420 mg bid) for 5 years before she complained of fatigue and weakness. According to clinical laboratory she had developed severe proximal tubular damage. hypophosphatemia, glycosuria and proteinuria persisted although medication was stopped immediately. ( info)

5/194. mutation analysis of two Japanese patients with Fanconi-Bickel syndrome.

    Fanconi-Bickel syndrome (FBS), or glycogen storage disease type XI, is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by hepatorenal glycogen accumulation, Fanconi nephropathy, and impaired utilization of glucose and galactose. Recently, this disease was elucidated to link mutations in the glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) gene. Only three mutations in three FBS families have been reported. Therefore, it is important to elucidate mutations in the GLUT2 gene in FBS by answering the question of whether the syndrome is a single gene disease. In this report, we describe two patients in two unrelated families clinically diagnosed with FBS. No mutation in the entire protein coding region of the GLUT2 gene was detected in patient 1, which suggested that no mutation existed in the GLUT2 gene, or that some mutations had affected the expression of the GLUT2 gene. In patient 2, a novel homozygous nonsense mutation (W420X, Trp at codon 420 to stop codon) was detected. These results support the correlation between GLUT2 gene mutation and FBS syndrome. However, many patients must be analyzed to determine whether other genes are involved in FBS. ( info)

6/194. Chinese herb nephropathy in japan presents adult-onset fanconi syndrome: could different components of aristolochic acids cause a different type of Chinese herb nephropathy?

    BACKGROUND: We encountered two cases of Chinese herb-induced fanconi syndrome in japan. One component of the chinese medicine was "Kan-mokutsu" (aristolochia manshuriensis) in which aristolochic acids (AAs) were detected. methods: Renal biopsy showed flattening of proximal tubular epithelial cells and paucicellular interstitial fibrosis without glomerular lesions, all of which were in accordance with Chinese herb nephropathy (CHN). To date, many cases of CHN have been reported mainly as progressive renal failure in western countries. RESULTS: However, our cases were different from those in that they presented fanconi syndrome. The detected AAs in our cases consisted of aristolochic acid (AA)-I, II and D. In contrast, in belgium, the incriminated agent was aristolochia fangchi which consisted of AA-I, B, C, and aristolactum. CONCLUSION: These findings could indicate that different components of AAs could cause different clinical lesions, or that the amount of ingested AAs might reflect clinical pictures, that is to say, our patients took lower volume of Chinese herbs and might be in an early stage of CHN. Furthermore, it is likely that susceptibility to this substance may be different among races. CHN would include two clinical aspects: subacute renal failure and adult-onset fanconi syndrome. It is important to bear in mind that CHN could present fanconi syndrome. ( info)

7/194. Renal fanconi syndrome: first sign of partial respiratory chain complex IV deficiency.

    A 2-year-old boy who developed hypophosphatemic rickets without signs of muscular weakness or neurological disturbances is presented. Biochemical findings included hypophosphatemia, metabolic acidosis, hypouricemia, hyperphosphaturia, severe glucosuria, generalized hyperaminoaciduria, hypercalciuria, proteinuria with elevated excretion of IgG, transferrin, albumin and high levels of alpha-1-microglobulin. urine concentration capacity and creatinine clearance were normal. Lactaturia without elevated levels of plasma lactate and a high urinary excretion of beta-hydroxybutyrate were suggestive for mitochondriopathy. Partial deficiency of cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV of the respiratory chain) was found in skeletal muscle. A renal biopsy specimen demonstrated enlarged mitochondria with abnormal arborization and disorientation of the cristae in the proximal tubular cells. Reduced activity of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase in tubular cells could be demonstrated by ultracytochemistry. In conclusion, rickets due to the renal fanconi syndrome can be the first clinical sign of mitochondrial cytopathies without extra-renal symptoms. Elevated excretion of lactate and ketone bodies in urine may serve as a diagnostic marker. ( info)

8/194. Mitochondrial cytopathy combined with Fanconi's syndrome.

    Severe muscle weakness in Fanconi's syndrome is rarely the result of mitochondrial cytopathy. We describe a rare case of a 9-year-old male with early onset of Fanconi's syndrome. He developed severe proximal muscle weakness exacerbated by hypokalemia and hypophosphatemia in childhood. The muscle biopsy revealed increased accumulation of abnormal mitochondria and fat droplets in histochemical stains and electron microscopy. Mitochondrial cytopathy cannot be excluded in Fanconi's syndrome with late onset of muscular impairment. Long-term follow-up of his clinical course is suggested to understand the natural history of this unusual case. ( info)

9/194. An infant with severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome, an alpha-thalassemia trait and renal fanconi syndrome.

    We describe an infant with severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome and an alpha-thalassemia trait who developed a renal fanconi syndrome after his first stem cell transplantation. This syndrome consists of a generalized failure of proximal tubular reabsorption, which leads to a large number of metabolic disturbances. The etiology varies from inherited causes, including an idiopathic form, to acquired causes such as intoxications, immunological disorders and hemoglobinopathies. In this case report we discuss possible explanations of the fanconi syndrome in our patient. ( info)

10/194. A mutation in GLUT2, not in phosphorylase kinase subunits, in hepato-renal glycogenosis with fanconi syndrome and low phosphorylase kinase activity.

    Fanconi-Bickel syndrome is characterized by hepato-renal glycogenosis with severe renal tubular dysfunction and rickets. It has recently been found to be associated with GLUT2 mutations in three families. In another family, low activities of liver phosphorylase kinase (Phk) have been observed, suggesting that Fanconi-Bickel syndrome might be genetically heterogeneous. We have analyzed this family for mutations in the GLUT2 gene and in the three Phk subunit genes that can cause liver glycogenosis (PHKA2, PHKB, and PHKG2). The coding sequences of all three Phk genes are normal but we have identified a homozygous missense mutation (Pro417Leu) in GLUT2. The affected proline residue is completely conserved in all mammalian glucose permease isoforms and even in bacterial sugar transporters and is believed to be critical for the passage of glucose through the permease. Seven affected individuals from different branches of the same large consanguineous sibship all are homozygous for this mutation. These findings indicate that there is no specific subtype of genetic Phk deficiency giving rise to hepato-renal glycogenosis. Rather, they provide further evidence that Fanconi-Bickel syndrome is caused by GLUT2 mutations. The low Phk activity is probably a secondary phenomenon that contributes to the deposition of glycogen in response to the intracellular glucose retention caused by GLUT2 deficiency. ( info)
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