Cases reported "Fetal Distress"

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1/144. Severe hemolytic disease from rhesus anti-C antibodies in a surrogate pregnancy after oocyte donation. A case report.

    BACKGROUND: Maternal sensitization with rhesus anti-C antibodies is comparatively rare and usually benign. In pregnancies conceived using donor oocytes, the mother's blood group may differ from that of both the father and the oocyte donor, making blood group incompatibility more likely. CASE: twins, the result of a surrogate pregnancy using donor oocytes, were born with severe hemolytic disease due to rhesus anti-C antibodies. Both infants required exchange transfusion for profound anemia at birth. Isoimmunization in the surrogate mother was not detected antenatally. The twins were delivered by emergency cesarean section due to fetal compromise, detected fortuitously when the mother attended for routine fetal assessment at 35 weeks' gestation. CONCLUSION: Isoimmunization with anti-C antibodies is not always benign and may cause significant hemolytic disease. With the success of in vitro fertilization and oocyte donation, more infertile couples may use these methods to conceive, with or without surrogacy arrangements. In such cases, the provision of antenatal care may become a complex matter, involving several parties, and good communication between everyone involved is vital. In pregnancies conceived with donor oocytes, there may be a higher risk of blood group incompatibility, and special vigilance is warranted. ( info)

2/144. Outcome of a baby born from a mother with acquired juvenile hypothyroidism having undetectable thyroid hormone concentrations.

    We report a baby born from a mother with strongly positive thyroid stimulation blocking antibody (TSBAB) and nearly undetectable T4 level. This case is a unique model of nearly complete absence of thyroid hormones during fetal and early neonatal life in humans. The infant girl was born by cesarean section, because of fetal bradycardia, after 41 weeks gestation and received mechanical ventilation for 3 days. The TSH level was more than 120 microU/mL in the neonatal thyroid screening. At age 17 days, the results of a thyroid function study showed undetectable free T3 and free T4 concentrations, TSH 550 microU/mL, and TSH receptor antibody (TRAB) 87%. thyroxine at a dose of 30 microg/day was started at age 17 days. The patient required thyroxine treatment until age 8 months. The brain magnetic resonance image at age 2 months revealed reduced brain size. Her auditory brain stem response was absent at age 2 months. The audiogram at age 4 yr revealed sensorineural deafness of 70 dB. When she was 6 yr of age, motor development remained the same as that at age 4 months. Her height was 106 cm (- 1.5 SD). The results of thyroid function study of the mother 23 days after delivery showed undetectable free T3 and free T4, TRAB 84%, and TSBAB 83%. In conclusion, the outcome of severe thyroid hormone deficiency in utero and early in human neonatal life was normal physical growth, fetal distress resulting in cesarean section, difficulty in the onset of breathing, permanent deficit in auditory function, brain atrophy, and severely impaired neuromotor development despite the start of an adequate dose of thyroxine replacement during the neonatal period. ( info)

3/144. Placental pathology casebook. Serpentine aneurysms of the placenta with fetal consequences.

    Two cases of placental surface vessel aneurysms are presented. One case was associated with severe fetal intrauterine growth restriction and fetal thrombocytopenia. The other case was associated with "molar transformation" of placental villous tissue. ( info)

4/144. Effect of corticosteroids on hellp syndrome: a case report.

    The hellp syndrome is associated with a high rate of prematurity, which is the major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Several studies have demonstrated the feasibility of prolongation of pregnancies complicated by HELLP syndrome. Until now the role of an additive pharmacological regimen, and particularly the role of corticosteroids, is still not clear. We report a case of a successful prolongation of a pregnancy complicated by hellp syndrome and note a direct relationship with application and withdrawal of corticosteroids. A 26-year old primigravida was admitted with hellp syndrome in the 25th week of gestation. We commenced a therapy with 40 mg methylprednisolone i.v. once daily, with clinical symptoms and biochemical parameters improving within two days. On day 6 we discontinued steroid medication with a consecutive deterioration of all biochemical data and clinical symptoms. Corticosteroids were recommenced and within two hours an improvement of all symptoms and laboratory data was observed. overall we were able to prolong the pregnancy for 33 days. This case report underlines the beneficial effect of corticosteroids in patients with hellp syndrome. Thus steroids might be helpful for postponing deliveries in very preterm gestation and for stabilizing the maternal status. ( info)

5/144. Late second stage rupture of the uterus and bladder with vaginal birth after cesarean section: a case report and review of the literature.

    Rupture of a uterine scar during labor with concomitant severe injury to the maternal bladder has been reported sporadically. Previously reported cases have been diagnosed under a variety of conditions, commonly at the time of repeat Cesarean delivery. A case of maternal bladder rupture diagnosed following forceps-assisted vaginal delivery after Cesarean is presented. Severe bradycardia developed suddenly in the second stage of labor. Rupture of the uterine scar was diagnosed after sudden onset of severe lower abdominal pain with delivery of the placenta. At laparotomy, extensive injury to the bladder was found and successful repair of both injuries was performed. A review of previously reported similar cases with their mechanism of injury and presentation is presented. Serious maternal bladder injury at the time of uterine rupture remains a risk of attempted vaginal delivery after prior cesarean section. ( info)

6/144. arthrogryposis and multicystic encephalopathy after acute fetal distress in the end stage of gestation.

    The natural history of the rare association "multicystic encephalopathy-arthrogryposis" was traced in a fetus carefully followed after artificial insemination. The fetus exhibited normal viability and brain morphology up to the 32nd week. At 36 weeks, active movements diminished and at 37 weeks, hydramnios and signs of fetal distress led to cesarean section. The infant presented with severe arthrogryposis of the limbs and spine, but not with the other elements of a long-lasting akinesia. US showed multicystic encephalopathy. Both the clinical and the neuropathological findings established that multicystic encephalopathy was neither the cause nor the sequential consequence of the fetal akinesia, but the result of a recent diffuse, acute malacic process that also involved the anterior horn cells. Acute fetal distress, responsible for major ischemic damage to CNS but compatible with fetal survival, remains an obscure condition which allows for the development of severe arthrogryposis in a few weeks. ( info)

7/144. Umbilical vein thrombosis as a possible cause of perinatal morbidity or mortality: report of two cases.

    Significant occlusion of the lumen of the umbilical vein by thrombus was observed in 2 patients with unexplained intrauterine fetal death (IUFD)/fetal distress. Although a normal non-stress testing result was obtained 7 days prior to IUFD in one patient, IUFD was noted during regular antenatal care at 39 weeks of gestation; intrapartum abrupt onset of deceleration in fetal heart rate pattern was observed at 40 weeks of gestation, lasting 14 min until vacuum extractor-assisted delivery in the other patient. Umbilical vein thrombosis was considered contributory to IUFD and the abrupt deterioration in fetal heart rate pattern in these 2 patients. Histological examination of the umbilical cord is thus important in unexplained fetal death/fetal distress. ( info)

8/144. Unnecessary emergency caesarean section due to silent CTG during anaesthesia?

    We present a case of a probably unnecessary Caesarean section due to misinterpretation of the cardiotocography (CTG) trace during general anaesthesia. A 27-yr-old patient in her 30th week of an uneventful, normal first pregnancy presented with a deep venous thrombosis in the pelvic region. She was to undergo an emergency thrombectomy under general anaesthesia. During the operation, the CTG showed a lack of beat-to-beat heart rate variation (silent pattern CTG) with normal fetal heart rate. This silent CTG pattern was probably a result of the effect of general anaesthesia on the fetus. The CTG pattern was interpreted as indicating fetal distress, and an emergency Caesarean section was performed after the thrombectomy. The infant was apnoeic and had to be resuscitated and admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. The pH at delivery was 7.23 and the baby was extubated 2 days later. Mother and child recovered without short-term sequelae. In the absence of alternative explanations, reduced fetal beat-to-beat variability with a normal baseline heart rate during general anaesthesia is probably normal. ( info)

9/144. Elevation of the fetal presenting part: A method of intrauterine resuscitation.

    Traditional methods of diagnosing fetal distress have become obsolete. This diagnosis should be suggested by fetal heart rate patterns that demonstrate recurrent late or severe variable decelerations. Based upon our understanding of these patterns, methods of treating fetal distress in utero have evolved. This paper presents several cases in which elevation of the fetal presenting part was employed in an attempt to improve severe variable decelerations. It is suggested that this might be a salutary procedure when other methods of intrauterine resuscitation have failed. ( info)

10/144. Critical pulmonary stenosis with intact ventricular septum and fetal arrhythmias.

    A 23-year-old woman, gravida 1, was referred to our hospital for possible fetal distress at 32 weeks of pregnancy. A fetal cardiotochogram showed a reactive pattern, but mild continuous bradycardia and an intermittent pulse were observed, regarded as a sinus type and a type of A-V block, respectively. The continuous deceleration of the heart rate to 95 bpm was observed frequently at 35 weeks, 3 days of gestation. Thus, an emergent cesarean section was performed and a viable 2,082 g female infant was delivered. The neonate gradually became cyanotic, and an echocardiogram was performed. The neonate was regarded as a right ventricular outflow obstruction with intact ventricular septum. Unlike other cases, the infant revealed a moderately developed right ventricle despite a severely stenotic tricuspid valve. The infant died 27 days after birth and an autopsy established the diagnosis of critical pulmonary stenosis with intact ventricular septum. Right ventricular myocardial sinusoidal-coronary artery connections, one of the major features of this type of heart anomaly, was speculated to be involved in the cause of fetal bradyarrhythmias. ( info)
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