Cases reported "Fungemia"

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1/345. Invasive infections due to Clavispora lusitaniae.

    Three cases of Clavispora lusitaniae invasive fungal infections are reported. All three infections appeared in cancer patients presented with fungaemia, one additionally with meningitis. Two of them were breakthrough -- they developed during therapy with conventional amphotericin b with a dose of 0.5 mg kg(-1) day(-1) . All three were cured: two with intravenous fluconazol and one with an increasing dose (1 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) of amphotericin b. In one of two breakthrough cases the sensitivity of the strain to antifungals was tested against antifungal agents and showed in vitro resistance to amphotericin b (MIC 2 eta g ml(-1)). ( info)

2/345. Candida dubliniensis candidemia in patients with chemotherapy-induced neutropenia and bone marrow transplantation.

    The recently described species Candida dubliniensis has been recovered primarily from superficial oral candidiasis in hiv-infected patients. No clinically documented invasive infections were reported until now in this patient group or in other immunocompromised patients. We report three cases of candidemia due to this newly emerging Candida species in hiv-negative patients with chemotherapy-induced immunosuppression and bone marrow transplantation. ( info)

3/345. The use of fluconazole as a local irrigant for nephrostomy tubes.

    OBJECTIVES: Few data exist concerning the combined use of fluconazole systemically and as an irrigant for nephrostomy tubes in a patient with renal candidiasis. The patient described here presented with renal fungal balls obstructing the drainage of urine from her nephrostomy tubes. methods: Twelve months after chemoradiation for a stage IIB squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix, a 35-year-old woman presented with renal obstruction necessitating insertion of ureteral stents. After 6 months of chemotherapy, the patient developed uremia. After nephrostomy tubes were placed, renal candidiasis was noted, and fluconazole was begun systemically. When the renal candidiasis failed to clear, nephrostomy tube irrigations were begun. RESULTS: Fourteen days of therapy with fluconazole resulted in the resolution of the uremia. The patient died 6 months later with her nephrostomy tubes in situ and without evidence of candidiasis in her urinary tract. CONCLUSIONS: The patient described was successfully treated without having to remove her nephrostomy tubes. Two other authors have reported the successful use of fluconazole irrigation to treat candidiasis in nephrostomy tubes that was unresponsive to systemic fluconazole. Before the appearance of these reports, the best results were obtained with removal of the catheter in renal candidiasis. ( info)

4/345. paecilomyces lilacinus fungemia in an adult bone marrow transplant recipient.

    paecilomyces lilacinus is a rare fungal pathogen in humans. We report a case of fungemia caused by P. lilacinus in a non-neutropenic adult, 120 days after bone marrow transplant. The patient's primary risk factor was the presence of an indwelling vascular catheter. Her initial clinical course was characterized by fever, chills, and rigors. blood cultures from the central line and peripheral veins were positive, as was a peripheral specimen drawn after removal of the catheter. Two initial peripheral specimens were positive for P. lilacinus only by blind subculture and/or sustained incubation. She developed peripheral pulmonary nodules following the fungemia, thus raising the possibility of disseminated disease, but definitive diagnosis was confounded by pseudomonas bacteremia. The nodules cleared and she recovered following removal of the central line and treatment with amphotericin b and 5-fluorocytosine, despite in vitro resistance to these antifungal drugs. This case underscores the increasing importance of P. lilacinus as a human pathogen capable of producing disease in immunocompetent, as well as in immunocompromised hosts. Also of note is that blood culture systems may require extended incubation or subcultures in order to detect fungi. ( info)

5/345. Fungal endocarditis in critically ill children.

    All cases of infective endocarditis occurring from January 1990 to December 1996 at our institution were reviewed, with a special focus on fungal endocarditis. Five critically ill children with fungal endocarditis and eleven children with bacterial endocarditis were recorded. The proportion of fungal endocarditis in our series was 5/16 (31%) and candida albicans (4/5) was the most common fungal pathogen. Only one patient required heart surgery because of a loose patch but all the others were treated only by medical management for cure. The hospital survival rate was 80% (4/5) and the overall long-term survival rate was 60% (3/5) with only one death directly related to fungal infection. CONCLUSION: Despite the small number of cases, a sole medical approach including amphotericin b and long-term fluconazole prophylaxis for the treatment of fungal endocarditis in critically ill children seems to offer an alternative to surgical treatment which may be kept for failure of medical treatment. ( info)

6/345. Nosocomial Candida krusei fungemia in cancer patients: report of 10 cases and review.

    The risk factors, therapy and outcome of ten cases of fungemia due to Candida krusei, appearing during the last 10 years in a single national cancer institution, are analyzed. Univariate analyses did not find any specific risk factors in comparison to 51 candida albicans fungemias appearing at the same institution and with a similar antibiotic policy. association with prior fluconazole prophylaxis was not confirmed because only one case appeared in a patient previously treated with fluconazole. However, attributable and crude mortality due to C. krusei fungemias was higher than for C. albicans fungemia. The authors review 172 C. krusei fungemias published within the last 10 years to compare with the incidence, therapy and outcome of C. krusei fungemia from our cancer institute. ( info)

7/345. rhodotorula rubra fungaemia in an immunosuppressed patient.

    We report the case of a patient who, following surgical removal of an extensive tumour of the bowel, developed fungaemia. The yeast was isolated from repeated blood and urine cultures and identified as rhodotorula rubra on the basis of macroscopic and microscopic features. Following treatment with amphotericin b, the patient's condition improved and the cultures became sterile. ( info)

8/345. Phialemonium fungemia: two documented nosocomial cases.

    Two fungal isolates recovered from the blood of two immunosuppressed patients are described as Phialemonium curvatum. One patient died, while the other, who was infected with exophiala jeanselmei at the same time, survived after successful treatment with itraconazole. Analysis of internal transcribed spacer sequences demonstrated that the isolates belonged to the same strain and that the source of infection was probably a catheter. The taxonomic position of P. curvatum is discussed, and Phialemonium dimorphosporum is considered a synonym. The in vitro inhibitory activities of six antifungal agents (amphotericin b, itraconazole, ketaconazole, miconazole, flucytosine, and fluconazole) were determined against seven isolates of Phialemonium. Except for flucytosine, all of them were remarkably effective. Phialemonium should be added to the list of potential causes of nosocomial fungemia in cancer patients. ( info)

9/345. candida glabrata fungemia. Clinical features of 139 patients.

    Candida species are now the fourth leading cause of nosocomial bloodstream infection in hospitalized patients, and non-candida albicans species now surpass candida albicans. The clinical features of the most common non-candida albicans species, Candida (Torulopsis) glabrata, have not been well studied. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical features of 139 patients with C. glabrata blood-stream infection over a period of 7 years. The mean age of patients was 62 years, and the most common admitting diagnoses were malignancy (28%) and coronary artery disease (18%). The most common identified portals of entry were abdominal (22%) and intravascular catheters (16%). At the time of fungemia, 63% of patients had fever, 45% had change in mental status, and 30% were in septic shock. Three of 50 patients examined by an ophthalmologist had chorioretinitis. The overall hospital mortality was 49%. Factors associated with increased mortality in a regression model were prior abdominal surgery (odds ratio [OR] = 2.8; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2-6.3, p = 0.01), and an elevated creatinine (OR = 2.2; 95% CI = 1.0-4.7, p = 0.05). When early deaths (< or = 72 hours) were censored, amphotericin b treatment and total dose were associated with reduced mortality (OR = 0.2; 95% CI = 0.1-0.4, p < 0.001). Nosocomial C. glabrata fungemia is not just a disease of debilitated and neutropenic patients, but affects a wide variety of patients and is associated with a high mortality. ( info)

10/345. Cryptococcal peritonitis: report of a case and review of the literature.

    We describe a patient diagnosed with AIDS and cirrhosis who had recently suffered a self-limited and non-specific esophageal ulceration. After this, he was hospitalized because of an oral bleeding with fatal evolution, and cryptococcus neoformans was isolated from ascitic fluid during a routine paracenteses. We have reviewed the literature and, since 1963, only another 10 cases of cryptococcal peritonitis have been reported. A liver disease and not the AIDS (surprisingly, our case is the only report of cryptococcal peritonitis in a subject having both diseases) was the most common underlying disease (72.7%) and was associated with the worst prognosis (only one patient survived). An oral or upper gastrointestinal bleeding was the most common associated circumstance although recent steroid or antibiotic therapy has been also reported. Finally, diagnosis was delayed in many patients. The reasons for these delays are discussed. ( info)
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