Cases reported "Gait Ataxia"

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1/50. Neuromyotonia, myocloni, sensory neuropathy and cerebellar symptoms in a patient with antibodies to neuronal nucleoproteins (anti-Hu-antibodies).

    A middle-aged patient presented with subacute muscular stiffness, myocloni of both extremity and facial muscles, gait ataxia and symmetrical distal painful paraesthesias. Electrophysiologically, neuromyotonia was confirmed. High titer anti-Hu antibodies were detected, but no other paraneoplastic antibodies were found. Small-cell lung cancer was diagnosed. Under chemotherapy tumor remission was achieved and, except for minor sensory deficits, neurological symptoms disappeared. This report shows that paraneoplastic syndromes associated with antibodies to neuronal nucleoproteins (anti-Hu antibodies) may be associated with a syndrome including neuromyotonia, sensory neuropathy, cerebellar symptoms and myocloni. ( info)

2/50. A case of Lafora's disease associated with cardiac arrhythmia.

    Progressive myoclonic epilepsies are rare, genetically transmitted diseases characterized by epileptic seizures, myoclonus, and progressive neurologic deterioration. Unverricht-Lundborg disease, Lafora's disease, neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, mitochondrial disorders, and sialidosis are included in this group. Lafora's disease is a progressive disorder of the central nervous system with onset in the late first or second decade of life and is inherited in an autosomal-recessive pattern. The first clinical manifestation is generalized tonic-clonic seizures, myoclonus, or both, usually seen between the ages of 11 and 18 years. The other clinical manifestations are progressive dementia and limb ataxia. Diagnosis is based on showing the typical inclusions in the brain, liver, skin, or muscle tissue specimens. The case of a 6-year-old male patient, who was admitted with the clinical findings of third-degree atrioventricular block and dementia and eventually diagnosed with Lafora's disease, is presented. ( info)

3/50. Os odontoideum with cerebellar infarction: a case report.

    STUDY DESIGN: A case report. OBJECTIVES: To report the case of a child with os odontoideum associated with cerebellar infarction and to discuss the correlation between atlantoaxial instability with os odontoideum and vertebrobasilar artery insufficiency. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: knowledge of the influence of atlantoaxial instability on vertebrobasilar artery insufficiency remains limited despite the publication of several reports. methods: A 5-year-old boy with ataxic gait disturbance was hospitalized in the pediatric ward. magnetic resonance imaging revealed multiple cerebellar infarctions, and cerebral angiogram showed occlusions of several branches of the basilar artery and a winding of the left vertebral artery. Stress lateral radiographs of the cervical spine showed atlantoaxial instability with os odontoideum. Posterior C1-C2 transarticular screw fixation with iliac bone graft was applied to obtain firm stability and fusion. RESULTS: There was no damage to the vertebral arteries or spinal nerves in the perioperative period. Solid union of the grafted bone and rigid stability of the atlantoaxial joint were seen on lateral flexion-extension radiographs 1 year after the operation. There has been no sign of recurrent arterial insufficiency, and the patient has been free from cerebellar dysfunction to date. CONCLUSIONS: Atlantoaxial instability may cause insufficiency of the vertebral artery as well as spinal cord injury. More attention should be paid to the possible relation between atlantoaxial instability and vertebrobasilar artery insufficiency. ( info)

4/50. An established case of dentatorubral pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA) with unusual features on muscle biopsy.

    Dentatorubral pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA) belongs to the group of autosomal dominant ataxias. central nervous system pathology and inheritance are both well characterized, although the illness is rare. The presentation of a European child affected by this illness is described. He presented at 9 years of age with intractable progressive myoclonus epilepsy against a background of learning difficulties and developed progressive hypertonicity and dementia before his death at 15 years of age. Significant histological changes in a muscle biopsy were found. There was an absence of type IIB fibres and a predominance of type I fibres. Mean fibre diameter of all the fibre types was markedly reduced. All type I fibres showed an increase in lipid droplets. No previous descriptions exist of muscle histology in DRPLA. Although at least five adult family members have symptoms consistent with a diagnosis of DRPLA, their condition had not been recognized. We therefore describe the clinical picture and histological findings. ( info)

5/50. vertigo and gait ataxia without usual signs of lateral medullary infarction: a clinical variant related to rostral-dorsolateral lesions.

    Isolated vertigo and ataxia have not been reported as manifestations of lateral medullary infarction. The author describes 3 patients with lateral medullary infarction who presented with almost isolated vertigo and gait ataxia without usual signs/symptoms of lateral medullary infarction such as facial/hemibody sensory changes, dysphagia, hoarseness, hiccup, limb ataxia, and Horner sign. brain MRI showed small infarcts selectively involving the most dorsolateral portion of the rostral medulla that corresponds to the vestibulocerebellar pathway. These patients illustrate that lateral medullary infarction may present as an isolated vertigo and gait ataxia. Clinicians should be aware of this clinical variant, because these patients may be misdiagnosed as having labyrinthine disorders. ( info)

6/50. A treatable cause of ataxia in children.

    An 11-year-old black male presenting with severe subacute sensory ataxia, unusual skin hyperpigmentation, megaloblastic anemia, low serum B12 levels, and an abnormal part I schilling test was diagnosed with pernicious anemia in the context of a polyglandular syndrome. intrinsic factor and thyroid microsomal antibodies were positive, and thyroid-stimulating hormone levels were undetectable. There was a strong familial aggregation because the mother, a maternal aunt, the maternal grandfather, and the maternal great-grandmother had been diagnosed with pernicious anemia, albeit of unspecified etiology. Spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated extensive demyelination of the posterior columns along the entire length of the cord, as well as areas of contrast enhancement. Treatment with cobalamin produced complete remission of the neurologic deficits and normalization of the MRI findings in the short space of 2 months. Although rare, childhood pernicious anemia is a treatable disease that should be included in the differential diagnosis of the sensory ataxias in children. In this article, we review the causes of pernicious anemia in children and discuss the MRI findings. ( info)

7/50. paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration as the first manifestation of cancer.

    paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration (PCD) is a type of paraneoplastic syndrome that primarily affects women with gynecological cancers. patients typically experience pancerebellar symptoms, including gait ataxia, dysarthria, nystagmus, and truncal and appendicular ataxia. We present the case of a 50-year-old woman with PCD and presumed ovarian cancer who initially complained of ataxia and dysarthria. PCD was diagnosed on the basis of her symptoms, diagnostic imaging, and laboratory work. PCD symptoms may precede the diagnosis of malignancy by months or years. early diagnosis and treatment of these syndromes, including rehabilitation, may result in improvements in quality of life for this population of patients. ( info)

8/50. Human epilepsy associated with dysfunction of the brain P/Q-type calcium channel.

    BACKGROUND: The genetic basis of most common forms of human paroxysmal disorders of the central nervous system, such as epilepsy, remains unidentified. Several animal models of absence epilepsy, commonly accompanied by ataxia, are caused by mutations in the brain P/Q-type voltage-gated calcium (Ca(2 )) channel. We aimed to determine whether the P/Q-type Ca(2 ) channel is associated with both epilepsy and episodic ataxia type 2 in human beings. methods: We identified an 11-year-old boy with a complex phenotype comprising primary generalised epilepsy, episodic and progressive ataxia, and mild learning difficulties. We sequenced the entire coding region of the gene encoding the voltage-gated P/Q-type Ca(2 ) channel (CACNA1A) on chromosome 19. We then introduced the newly identified heterozygous mutation into the full-length rabbit cDNA and did detailed electrophysiological expression studies of mutant and wild type Ca(2 ) channels. FINDINGS: We identified a previously undescribed heterozygous point mutation (C5733T) in CACNA1A. This mutation introduces a premature stop codon (R1820stop) resulting in complete loss of the C terminal region of the pore-forming subunit of this Ca(2 ) channel. Expression studies provided direct evidence that this mutation impairs Ca(2 ) channel function. Mutant/wild-type co-expression studies indicated a dominant negative effect. INTERPRETATION: Human absence epilepsy can be associated with dysfunction of the brain P/Q-type voltage-gated Ca(2 ) channel. The phenotype in this patient has striking parallels with the mouse absence epilepsy models. ( info)

9/50. Delayed diffuse neurodegeneration after cerebral concussion.

    A 27-month-old girl developed severe diffuse neurological disability that was progressive between 2 weeks and 2 years after a closed head injury. After stabilization of her disability for 1 year, mild improvement in neurological function began in the third year after the concussion. Multiple imaging studies of the neural axis remained normal during a 5-year period after the initial injury. Delayed and diffuse trauma-induced neuronal apoptosis is a pathogenic mechanism that could explain this unusual neurodegenerative syndrome. ( info)

10/50. Sequence variation in GAA repeat expansions may cause differential phenotype display in Friedreich's ataxia.

    Friedreich's ataxia, the most common autosomal recessive inherited ataxia, is characterized by progressive gait and limb ataxia. Friedreich's ataxia is known for its occurrence within the first or second decade of life and is associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and in some cases with diabetes. Genetically, it is identified by the expression of an unstable trinucleotide GAA repeat expansion located in the first intron of the X25 gene on chromosome 9. Two brothers with very late adult-onset ataxia, and their unaffected sister, were examined for the clinical presentation of FA and for the presence of the mutated FA gene. The relationship of the expanded gene sequence to the severity of disease and age of onset were evaluated. Clinical examination revealed that the two brothers had mild ataxia and proprioceptive loss, with age of onset between 60 and 70 years of age. dna from peripheral blood nucleated cells demonstrated a small homozygous expansion, with approximately 120-130 GAA repeats in the X25 gene in both patients. The expanded repeats were interrupted either with GAAGAG, GAAGGA, or GAAGAAAA sequences. The unaffected sister carried a normal FA genotype with 8-uninterrupted GAA repeat, observed by sequence analysis. In addition, the levels of FA gene transcript in both brothers were relatively lower than that in the unaffected sister. No detectable cardiomyopathy or diabetes was observed. Phenotypic diversity of FA is increasingly expanding. The age of onset and the structure of GAA repeat expansion plays an important role in determining the clinical features and the differential diagnosis of FA. The confirmation of the FA gene mutation in the atypical case, broadens the clinical spectrum of FA, and supports the idea that patients with even a mild form of ataxia of late adult onset should be considered for molecular testing. ( info)
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