Cases reported "Galactorrhea"

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1/181. Isolated galactorrhea with normal serum prolactin levels: clinical implications.

    Detailed endocrine-metabolic studies were performed on five women who were otherwise well but who had had inappropriate breast secretions for variable periods of time (three months to 16 years). Our results suggest that the presence of a lactose-containing breast secretion, which strictly defines galactorrhea, does not necessarily indicate a recognizable abnormality if normal hypothalamic-pituitary function is present. In these regularly menstruating women with isolated galactorrhea, we suggest a minimum initial evaluation, but careful long-term follow-up studies to identify those cases which may progress to the other recognized, more serious amenorrhea-galactorrhea syndromes. ( info)

2/181. pregnancy following bromocryptine therapy for the amenorrhoea-galactorrhoea syndrome due to a pituitary tumour.

    A woman developed amenorrhoea and galactorrhoea after partial removal of a pituitary tumor during pregnancy. Hyperprolactinaemia was supressed by therapy with bromocryptine (CB 154, Sandoz) resulting in cessation of galactorrhoea in two months, spontaneous menstruation after eight months, and pregnancy after twelve months. ( info)

3/181. Traumatic aneurysm and carotid-cavernous fistula following transsphenoidal approach to a pituitary adenoma: treatment by transcranial operation.

    A 39-year old woman presented with galactorrhoea. magnetic resonance imaging revealed an intrasellar tumour. During transsphenoidal surgery to remove the tumour, arterial bleeding occurred from the right internal carotid artery (ICA). The bleeding was stopped by packing with Surgicel. The operation was discontinued at this point and the intrasellar tumour was not removed. Four-vessel angiography was performed on the third day after the operation, revealing a traumatic (false) ICA aneurysm and a low-flow carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) on the right side. The patient did not have any neurological deficit, and was re-operated on transcranially. Both the traumatic ICA aneurysm and the CCF were excluded from the circulation by a Sundt-Kees cuff clip. The patency of the ICA was preserved. ( info)

4/181. Hormonal side effects in women: typical versus atypical antipsychotic treatment.

    Neuroleptic-induced hyperprolactinemia can cause menstrual disorders, impaired fertility, galactorrhea, and sexual dysfunction, as well as hypoestrogenism secondary to disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. The development of the prolactin-sparing atypical antipsychotic drugs offers prevention and resolution of these adverse reactions. Thus far, this property of the new medications has received insufficient clinical attention. The authors use case vignettes to discuss assessment and management of clinical situations that arise as a result of antipsychotic-induced endocrine changes. ( info)

5/181. Galactorrhoea and pituitary mass: a typical prolactinoma?

    A 21 year old woman presenting with galactorrhoea, hyperprolactinaemia, and a pituitary mass on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is described who was referred to us before planned pituitary surgery. Although a thorough history did not suggest hypothyroidism, laboratory studies revealed profound primary hypothyroidism. At that time, pituitary MRI showed homogeneous enlargement of the pituitary gland consistent with pituitary hyperplasia due to primary hypothyroidism. With thyroid hormone replacement therapy the galactorrhoea resolved, concentrations of prolactin and thyroid hormones returned to normal, and the pituitary shrunk to normal size within two months. This case illustrates that primary hypothyroidism can present only with galactorrhoea and pituitary mass, and should therefore be considered in the differential diagnosis of hyperprolactinaemia and pituitary enlargement. ( info)

6/181. Treatment of prolactin-secreting pituitary tumours in young women by needle implantation of radioactive yttrium.

    Twenty-one young female patients are described who presented with amenorrhoea, galactorrhoea or infertility, and were treated by 90Y pituitary implantation of 20,000 rads. There was no morbidity. In all patients serum prolactin values were elevated and radiographs of the pituitary fossa were abnormal. Observations are available for 1--76 months (mean 27) after implantation. The median fall in prolactin values was 60 per cent while there was no deterioration in pituitary function if normal pre-operatively. luteinizing hormone values, both basally and following gonadotrophin-releasing hormone, rose to normal after operation; several instances of sellar remodelling were observed radiologically, and no instance of relapse was found radiologically, biochemically or clinically. Thirteen patients desiring fertility have been observed since implantation; so far nine have become pregnant, in three instances without any additional therapy; since four patients became pregnant twice, a total of 13 pregnancies have occurred. No case of tumour expansion was observed during pregnancy. 90Y implantation can be considered as a therapeutic procedure in young female patients requiring fertility which is competitive with surgical methods, and together with a short course of bromocriptine if needed, could prove to be the treatment of choice. ( info)

7/181. galactorrhea may be clue to serious problems. patients deserve a thorough workup.

    Three cases of nonphysiologic hyperprolactinemia associated with pituitary disease evidenced by galactorrhea are presented. Two patients had significant pituitary disease associated with low-level prolactin elevations. The third patient had only a history of infertility and expressible galactorrhea on examination. This patient was found to have high prolactin levels and a locally invasive pituitary tumor. physicians need to be aware of the serious conditions associated with galactorrhea so that appropriate diagnostic studies can be done and treatment instituted. ( info)

8/181. Transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary gigantism and galactorrhea in a 3.5 year old child.

    The management of pituitary macroadenomas which lead to gigantism may require multiple therapeutical approaches, including medical treatment, surgery, and radiation therapy. Transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) during early childhood that achieves total removal of a growth hormone (GH) secreting tumor is rarely reported. The surgeon is confronted with special problems regarding the infantile anatomy. In this case, a 3.5 year old child, the youngest successfully treated by TSS so far, suffered from a GH- and prolactin (PRL) secreting macroadenoma of the pituitary gland. The girl initially presented with an increasing growth rate, later with breast development, and finally, at the age of 2.8 years, with galactorrhea and secretion of blood from the nipples. Increased levels of GH [122 micrograms/l], insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) [830 micrograms/l], insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) [8.6 mg/l] and PRL [590 micrograms/l] were found. MRI scans revealed a macroadenoma of 2.7 cm diameter. An eight-week trial of relatively low dose dopamine agonists led to a reduction of PRL, while the GH- and IGF-1 levels remained unchanged; the tumor showed only little shrinkage. Since there was chiasma compression, we opted for early TSS. A complete tumor removal was achieved despite the difficulties of a narrow approach. After TSS, low levels of GH, IGF-1, and PRL documented a complete tumor removal, but persistent diabetes insipidus and anterior lobe deficits resulted from surgery. In summary, if primary medical therapy alone is unable to adequately reduce hormone hypersecretion and tumor size in early childhood, TSS is recommended. Thus, radiation therapy may be reserved for surgical failure. ( info)

9/181. Reversible galactorrhea and prolactin elevation related to fluoxetine use.

    fluoxetine, an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor class, may stimulate prolactin release by pituitary lactotrophs. A 71-year-old woman taking estrogen replacement therapy developed galactorrhea after initiation of fluoxetine for depression and was found to have an elevated prolactin level. fluoxetine was discontinued with resolution of the patient's galactorrhea and normalization of her prolactin level. ( info)

10/181. The spectrum and significance of primary hypophysitis.

    Hypophysitis can present clinically as a mass lesion of the sella turcica. Secondary hypophysitis occurs in cases where a definite etiologic agent or process inciting the inflammatory reaction can be identified. In contrast, primary hypophysitis refers to inflammation confined to the pituitary gland with no identifiable etiologic associations. We report three cases of primary hypophysitis to illustrate the spectrum of three clinicopathological entities that encompass this disease: lymphocytic hypophysitis, granulomatous hypophysitis, and xanthomatous hypophysitis. Our three patients underwent surgery, with variable response. However, conservative, supportive treatment with or without surgical decompression is generally favored over aggressive and extensive surgical resection that results in hypopituitarism. We conclude that the optimal management of patients with hyophysitis requires a high index of suspicion before extensive surgical resection. Histological confirmation of the diagnosis of hypophysitis can be obtained by performing a biopsy or by requesting an intraoperative frozen section consultation. ( info)
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