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1/2968. A case report of congenital intrahepatic arterioportal fistula.

    We report a case of congenital arterioportal fistula presenting with upper gastrointestinal bleeding from oesophageal varices. The fistula was successfully treated with surgical ligation of the left hepatic artery. ( info)

2/2968. Haemosuccus pancreaticus: a clinical challenge.

    BACKGROUND: Haemosuccus pancreaticus is a rare complication of pancreatitis. It is a diagnostic problem for even the most astute clinician and a challenge for the expert endoscopist. We report a 25-year-old male patient who had all the features usually seen in haemosuccus pancreaticus patients: recurrent obscure upper gastrointestinal bleeding, pancreatitis, pseudocyst formation, ductal disruption, fistula and pancreatic ascites. The patient was treated by subtotal pancreatectomy, splenectomy and drainage of the pseudocyst. Although pancreatic duct communication with the surrounding vasculature could not be ascertained, we strongly believe the patient had haemosuccus pancreaticus because, over a follow-up period of 3 years, the patient was not only ascites free, but did not experience any further upper gastrointestinal bleeding. We believe that in evaluating patients with recurrent obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, one should always remember that the pancreas is a part of the gastrointestinal tract and, like other organs, is prone to blood loss. ( info)

3/2968. Massive gastrointestinal hemorrhage after transoesophageal echocardiography probe insertion.

    PURPOSE: To describe a case of a massive gastric bleeding following emergency coronary artery bypass surgery associated with transoesophageal echocardiographic (TEE) examination. CLINICAL FEATURES: A 50-yr-old man was referred for an acute myocardial infarction and pulmonary edema (Killip class 3). Twelve hours after his myocardial infarction, he was still having chest pain despite an i.v. heparin infusion. coronary angiography revealed severe three-vessel disease with multifocal stenosis of the left anterior descending, circumflex and total occlusion of the right coronary artery. The patient was transferred to the operating room for emergency coronary artery bypass graft surgery. After total systemic heparinization (3 mg.kg-1) was obtained for cardiopulmonary bypass, a multiplane TEE probe was inserted without difficulty to monitor myocardial contractility during weaning from CPB. During sternal closure, the TEE probe was removed and an orogastric tube was inserted with immediate drainage of 1,200 ml red blood. Endoscopic examination demonstrated a mucosal tear near the gastro-oesophageal junction and multiple erosions were seen in the oesophagus. These lesions were successfully treated with submucosal epinephrine injections and the patient was discharged from the hospital eight days after surgery. CONCLUSION: This is a report of severe gastrointestinal hemorrhage following TEE examination in a fully heparinized patient. This incident suggest that, if the use of TEE is expected, the probe should preferably be inserted before the administration of heparin and the beginning of CPB. ( info)

4/2968. In situ repair of a secondary aortoappendiceal fistula with a rifampin-bonded Dacron graft.

    Secondary aortoenteric fistulas remain challenging diagnostic and therapeutic problems. Although the duodenum is most frequently involved, other intestinal segments are possible sites for fistulization. We report here a case of graft-appendiceal fistula revealed by recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding 11 years after abdominal aortic aneurysm replacement. The preoperative diagnosis was not achieved by endoscopy or imaging assessment. Despite recommended principles of total graft excision and extraanatomic bypass, appendectomy and in situ rifampin-bonded graft reconstruction were performed because of the advanced age and poor arterial runoff. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient remains well 17 months after operation. ( info)

5/2968. Watermelon stomach--an unusual cause of recurrent upper gastrointestinal bleeding in a uremic patient receiving estrogen-progesterone therapy: case report.

    A 50-year-old woman who had been on maintenance hemodialysis for 5 years developed severe anemia resistant to treatment with iron supplements and erythropoietin 4 months prior to hospital admission. Her stool occult blood test was positive, and an initial panendoscopy revealed evidence of possible antral gastritis. However, repeated administration of sucralfate, H2 blockers and a proton pump inhibitor was not effective in preventing further gastrointestinal tract blood loss and subsequent refractory anemia. She required multiple blood transfusions and hospital admissions during this period. There was no obvious coagulopathy or thrombocytopenia. After her third admission, a second panendoscopy demonstrated the typical picture of watermelon stomach. A trial of hormone therapy with estrogen and progesterone increased the hemoglobin level within a month without further evidence of active gastrointestinal bleeding. From our experience with this case, we found that the diagnosis of antral vascular ectasia (watermelon stomach) with bleeding requires a high degree of clinical alertness and careful endoscopic examination. Estrogen and progesterone therapy may provide a good option for treating the disease in uremic patients without an obvious complication. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the use of maintenance hormone therapy in a female uremic patient to successfully treat watermelon gastric bleeding. ( info)

6/2968. Metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma to the right colon manifested by gastrointestinal bleeding.

    An 82-year-old black woman with a history of hepatocellular carcinoma presented with gastrointestinal bleeding. barium enema and fibrocolonoscopy revealed a 4-cm polypoid mass at the level of the ascending colon with evidence of active bleeding. Biopsies of the lesion proved it to be metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma. Exploratory laparotomy revealed no further dissemination of the tumor, and the patient underwent an ileocolectomy. The serosal side of the colonic lesion was free from tumor, and there was no peritoneal implantation, direct extension, or lymph node involvement. This case represents an extremely rare presentation of metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma. ( info)

7/2968. Duodenal ulceration into the cystic artery with massive hemorrhage.

    This is a case presentation of a unique cause of intestinal bleeding. A duodenal ulcer eroded into the superficial branch of the cystic artery, causing massive intestinal hemorrhage. The patient, a 76-year-old woman, presented with left upper abdominal and left back pain secondary to cystic lesions in the pancreas body and tail. Stress after operation and complication of leakage of pancreatic juice after distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy and diclofenac sodium administration may have caused a deep peptic ulcer to erode the cystic artery. We performed a transfixing ligation of the bleeding vessel, serosal suture of ulcer of the gallbladder, and simple closure of the duodenal ulcer with covering greater omentum. There were no serious complications after the operation, and the patient made an uneventful recovery. ( info)

8/2968. Jejunal telangiectasias as a cause of massive bleeding in a patient with scleroderma.

    Telengiectasias (arteriovenous malformations) can be seen in scleroderma throughout the gastrointestinal tract, including the stomach, small bowel and colon. Massive gastrointestinal bleeding rarely results from these malformations in scleroderma. The case of a patient presenting with severe jejunal bleeding secondary to telangiectasias with special regard to the management is discussed. This case emphasizes the importance of endoscopic examination combined with mesenteric angiography in patients with scleroderma who present with a high index of suspicion of telangiectasias as a source of bleeding. ( info)

9/2968. Fatal polyarteritis nodosa with massive mesenteric necrosis in a child.

    polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a rare vasculitic syndrome in childhood. There are few reported cases of ischaemic necrosis of the intestine and even fewer survivors in adults. We report the case of a 10-year-old boy with PAN and an acute abdomen that required operative intervention. Evidence was found of mesenteric arteritis with large ischaemic segments resulting in infarction and perforation. ( info)

10/2968. Localization of bleeding site in the small bowel using a combined diagnostic approach.

    The difficulty in localizing a bleeding site in the small bowel with sufficient accuracy to define a therapeutic target is well known. Great strides have been made in the realms of angiography and endoscopy in finding and treating lesions above the Ligament of Treitz and below the ileocecal valve. Although not as common as these, lesions in the small bowel, frequently remain obscure as to their origin and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In a significant percentage of cases, a discreet lesion is not found. Angiography, endoscopy, fluoroscopy and surgical resection have each proved useful but used together can increase the yield in diagnosis and treatment. An approach utilizing all of the above techniques together, necessitated by the failure of endoscopic coagulation and angiographic embolization, will be presented, whereby the bleeding site due to angiodysplasia of the jejunum was identified and definitively resected surgically. ( info)
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