Cases reported "Gliosis"

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1/263. Brainstem pathology of infantile Gaucher's disease with only wave I and II of auditory brainstem response.

    We studied the auditory brainstem response (ABR) and neuropathology in a female infant who died at six months of age because of typical infantile Gaucher's disease. The patient was hospitalized for hepatosplenomegaly and failure to thrive. Her ABR showed only waves I and II. The neuropathological study disclosed that: (1) Gaucher's cells were found in the perivascular region of the cerebrum and anterior ventral nucleus of the thalamus. (2) gliosis was found in the dorsal part of the brainstem rather than the ventral part. (3) Neuronal cells in the superior olivary nucleus were lost, and marked gliosis was found in the cochlear nucleus. The disappearance of wave III and later waves of ABR could be supported by these pathological findings. ( info)

2/263. An autopsy case of myotonic dystrophy with mental disorders and various neuropathologic features.

    An autopsy case of myotonic dystrophy (MD) is reported. The patient was a 58-year-old male. He presented with muscular weakness and muscular atrophy at the age of 33 and was diagnosed as having MD from myotonic symptoms (i.e. percussion and grip myotonia) at 49 years old. mental disorders including a delusional hallucinatory state, mental slowness, indifference, and lack of spontaneity as well as visual cognitive impairments were noted at the age of 55. He showed Parkinsonism and died of septic shock. T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated diffuse cortical atrophy with a marked frontal atrophy and high-intensity signals in the white matter. Single photon emission computed tomography demonstrated hypoperfusion in the frontal cortex. Neuropathologic observation revealed neuronal loss in the superficial layer of the frontal and parietal cortices and extensive neuronal loss in the occipital cortex, intracytoplasmic inclusion body in the nerve cell of the medial thalamic nuclei, neuronal loss and presence of lewy bodies in the substantia nigra and locus ceruleus corresponding to the pathologic features of Parkinson's disease, as well as abnormalities of myelin in the white matter. The present case suggests that in MD brain, various neuropathologic changes may occur and they contribute to the mental disorders. ( info)

3/263. Multifocal meningioangiomatosis: a report of two cases.

    We report the CT and MR findings in two patients with multifocal meningioangiomatosis, neither of whom had a family history or stigmata of neurofibromatosis. All lesions were located in the cortical and subcortical areas and had round dense calcifications with eccentric cysts. The masses were associated with surrounding edema and gliosis. ( info)

4/263. MELAS with prominent white matter gliosis and atrophy of the cerebellar granular layer: a clinical, genetic, and pathological study.

    This report concerns an autopsy case of mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) with unusual neuropathological findings. The patient was a Japanese woman who was 21 years old at the time of death. Her mother is a patient with genetically confirmed MELAS. Her clinical manifestations included convulsions and lactic acidosis in the latter half of the first decade of life, followed by deafness, dementia, muscle weakness in the lower extremities, slight ataxia in the upper and lower extremities, and diabetes mellitus. Muscle biopsy revealed ragged-red fibers, and genetic study showed a point mutation at nucleotide pair 3243 in mitochondrial DNA. She died of lactic acidosis. In the clinical course, she did not develop stroke-like episodes. The neuropathological examination revealed not only minute to small necrotic foci in the cerebral cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, and cerebellum, but also prominent white matter gliosis in the central nervous system and cerebellar cortical degeneration of granular cell type. Our neuropathological findings, including prominent white matter gliosis of the central nervous system and cerebellar cortical degeneration of granular cell type, may indicate morphologically widespread cellular dysfunction, not restricted to either neuronal or vascular derangement, in the brain pathology of MELAS. ( info)

5/263. Fatal poisoning from liquid dimethylmercury: a neuropathologic study.

    Since ancient times, mercury has been recognized as a toxic substance. Dimethylmercury, a volatile liquid organic mercury compound, is used by a small number of chemistry laboratories as a reference material in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. To our knowledge, dimethylmercury has been reported in only three cases of human poisoning, each proving fatal. Very small amounts of this highly toxic chemical can result in devastating neurological damage and death. We report the neuropathologic findings in a fatal case of dimethylmercury intoxication occurring in a laboratory researcher that resulted from a small accidental spill. We compare these findings to those reported in one previously reported fatal case of dimethylmercury poisoning, and to earlier reports of monomethylmercury poisoning, and discuss the clinicopathologic correlation. ( info)

6/263. Morphologic and genetic analysis of retinal angioma associated with massive gliosis in a patient with von hippel-lindau disease.

    We report morphologic and genetic analysis of bilateral retinal angiomas in a 35-year-old patient with von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease. Enucleation of both eyes revealed extensive intraocular tumor. Whereas the right eye demonstrated large amounts of retinal angioma tissue, the left eye showed small areas of retinal angioma associated with massive diffuse retinal gliosis. Genetic analysis of the angioma showed allelic deletion of the VHL gene locus, suggesting that the origin of the angiomas was directly related to the patient's underlying VHL disease. Genetic analysis of the pleomorphic glial proliferation showed no allelic VHL gene deletion, which is consistent with the assessment that the glial component represents a reactive process. apoptosis detected by TUNEL revealed lack of dna fragmentation in the angioma; in contrast, many positive signals were found in the massive gliosis. We confirmed that the abnormal VHL genes were located in the "stromal" cells of the retinal angioma. Massive gliosis in VHL disease is a true reactive retinal gliosis. ( info)

7/263. Pontocerebellar hypoplasia associated with respiratory-chain defects.

    Pontocerebellar hypoplasias are congenital disorders of brain morphogenesis which include such diverse etiologies as carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome type 1, cerebromuscular dystrophies (walker-warburg syndrome, Fukuyama syndrome, muscle-eye-brain disease) and at least two types of autosomal recessive neurodegenerations known as pontocerebellar hypoplasia type I and II. Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 1 is a lethal phenotype and clinical features include congenital contractures, respiratory insufficiency, central and peripheral motor dysfunction and spinal anterior horn degeneration. Type 2 is characterized by progressive microcephaly, extrapyramidal dyskinesia and normal spinal cord findings. In this paper, we describe a girl, born at 33 weeks of gestation, presenting with respiratory insufficiency and multiple contractures. MRI scan of the brain demonstrated pontocerebellar hypoplasia and cortical and diffuse periventricular white matter abnormalities. Postmortem examination showed pontocerebellar hypoplasia with extensive gliosis of the periventricular white matter and of the basal ganglia with normal spinal cord findings. histology of skeletal muscle was normal. Biochemical analysis demonstrated multiple deficiencies of respiratory chain enzymes in skin fibroblasts. This case demonstrates a lethal phenotype of pontocerebellar hypoplasia without spinal cord abnormalities associated with a respiratory-chain disorder. The diagnostic workup in a patient whose brain image shows pontocerebellar hypoplasia should include a search for respiratory-chain impairment. ( info)

8/263. Magnetisation transfer magnetic resonance imaging demonstration of perilesional gliosis--relation with epilepsy in treated or healed neurocysticercosis.

    We describe a case of healed neurocysticercosis with seizures, in which magnetisation transfer contrast showed a large area of presumed perilesional gliosis not visible on conventional spin echo magnetic resonance imaging. ( info)

9/263. Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome: a genetic microangiopathy?

    Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome (AGS) (McKusick 225750) is an autosomal recessive disease with onset in the 1st year of life, resulting in progressive microcephaly, calcification of cerebral white matter, thalamus and basal ganglia, generalized cerebral demyelination and a chronic low-grade CSF lymphocytosis, without evidence of infection. We report the autopsy of a patient who died with this disorder at the age of 17 years. Findings were severe microencephaly, diffuse but inhomogeneous cerebral white matter loss with associated astrocytosis, calcific deposits in the white matter, thalami and basal ganglia. neocortex and cerebellar cortex were affected by wedge-shaped microinfarctions. Small vessels showed calcification in the media, adventitia and perivascular spaces. These findings are similar to some previous publications that in retrospect may have been AGS, but this is the first reported cerebral microangiopathy in which the diagnosis AGS was made during lifetime. This report provides evidence that microangiopathy plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of AGS. ( info)

10/263. Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis associated with small cell carcinoma of the prostate.

    A 76-year-old man with primary small cell carcinoma of the prostate died after a subacute illness marked by memory loss and truncal ataxia Post-mortem examination of the central nervous system was consistent with limbic encephalitis and cerebellar degeneration. Although limbic encephalitis is a known complication of small cell carcinoma of the lung, this seems to be the first reported case of limbic encephalitis associated with small cell carcinoma of the prostate. Implications with respect to diagnosis and therapy are discussed. ( info)
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