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1/238. Membranous glomerulonephritis associated with Graves' disease.

    Renal involvement in thyroid diseases is an unusual event. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) associated vasculitis has been reported in propylthiouracil-treated patients. Membranous glomerulonephritis has been reported in association with both antithyroglobulin and thyroid antimicrosomal antibodies. The development of membranous glomerulonephritis may be associated with administration of 131I. We present a patient who developed membranous glomerulonephritis after administration of 131I. The clinical and pathological features of renal involvement in thyroid diseases are reviewed. ( info)

2/238. alpha-Interferon therapy for HBV-related glomerulonephritis.

    We report a case of a patient with hepatitis b virus (HBV)-related membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN) who showed improvement after interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) therapy. A 35-year-old man with nephrotic syndrome and HBV antigens received a 24-week course of IFN-alpha. At the end of therapy there was an elevation in the level of plasma aminotransferase and an increase in proteinuria, which were followed by antigen/antibody seroconversion. This "flare-up" before seroconversion suggests an increase in disease activity in the liver and kidney, demonstrating in vivo HBV involvement in MGN. ( info)

3/238. Primary biliary cirrhosis associated with membranous glomerulonephritis.

    A 33-year-old woman was admitted to our department for evaluation of liver dysfunction and proteinuria. A liver biopsy specimen showed ductular proliferation and moderate portal fibrosis indicating stage II primary biliary cirrhosis. A renal biopsy specimen showed mild to moderate mesangial cell proliferation without crescent formation or interstitial nephritis. Immunofluorescent staining revealed deposition of immunoglobulin g (IgG), third component of complement (C3), and Clq on glomerular basement membranes. The findings indicated stage I membranous glomerulonephritis. Administration of ursodesoxycholic acid together with prednisolone, azathioprine, and dipyridamole decreased proteinuria and improved cholestatic liver dysfunction. ( info)

4/238. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia-associated membranous glomerulopathy: remission with fludarabine.

    In some individuals, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) may be associated with glomerular disease from membranous nephropathy with resultant nephrotic syndrome. CLL is characterized by abnormal immunoregulation with a malignant clonal proliferation of lymphocytes. The association between the abnormal clone and nephrotic syndrome is suggested in some cases by the remission of proteinuria with a reduction in abnormal lymphocyte number after treatment with antineoplastic agents. For the first time, we describe a patient with CLL and associated membranous glomerulopathy whose nephrotic syndrome remitted after treatment with fludarabine, a new purine analogue used in the treatment of refractory CLL. ( info)

5/238. Diffuse glomerular basement membrane lamellation in renal allografts from pediatric donors to adult recipients.

    The transplantation of kidneys from pediatric cadaveric donors into adult recipients is performed in many centers. However, some studies indicate that the outcome of such renal transplants may be inferior compared with that of adult donors, particularly if the donor is an infant. Morphologic studies of failed pediatric donor kidneys in adult recipients describe various degrees of segmental or global glomerular sclerosis. The authors have performed ultrastructural examinations on such transplants and have identified six cases with diffuse irregular lamellation of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM), a change that may develop as early as 10 weeks after transplantation. The age of all donors was < or =6 years; three were infants. The incidence of the lesion was 9% at our institution in renal transplant patients who received a graft from donors <10 years old. Diffuse GBM lamellation has not been found in renal transplants from adult donors. light microscopy showed various degrees of diffuse mesangial expansion, usually with segmental glomerular sclerosis. The patients had severe proteinuria. While recurrent focal segmental glomerular sclerosis (FSGS) has to be excluded, such diffuse GBM lamellation is generally not seen in recurrent FSGS cases. The pathogenesis of the lesion is most likely related to hyperperfusion injury of small pediatric donor kidneys grafted into adult recipients. ( info)

6/238. role of interferon-alpha in the treatment of primary glomerulonephritis.

    interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) is a naturally occurring cytokine. It was the first cytokine used with clinical benefit in the treatment of viral hepatitis and malignancies. patients with viral hepatitis B or C may have complications with glomerulonephritis (GN). Improvement in proteinuria with or without clearing of viral markers after IFN-alpha therapy has been reported. This encouraged us to offer IFN-alpha therapy to four patients with GN. These patients refused treatment with steroids and/or cyclophosphamide because of concerns about side effects. One patient with membranous GN and two patients with mesangial GN (MesGN) had a remission of nephrotic syndrome. In one patient with type II diabetes and MesGN, renal insufficiency and proteinuria did not subside; however, renal function remained stable. The mechanism of action of IFN-alpha is discussed, with its possible role in the treatment of primary GN. ( info)

7/238. Membranous nephropathy associated with childhood sarcoidosis.

    sarcoidosis is a chronic multisystemic granulomatous disease of unknown etiology. It is relatively rare in children. Renal involvement in sarcoidosis is described less commonly than other organ involvement such as pulmonary, eye, musculoskeletal, and skin. We report a 13-year-old girl with sarcoidosis and nephrotic syndrome. Renal biopsy showed findings of membranous nephropathy. She received intravenous pulse methylprednisolone and oral cyclophosphamide with resolution of the symptoms of fever and edema, and improvement of the proteinuria. Her condition is stable with no progression of her renal disease. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of membranous nephropathy associated with childhood sarcoidosis. ( info)

8/238. Effectiveness of radiation therapy in nephrotic syndrome associated with advanced lung cancer.

    Paraneoplastic nephrotic syndrome is rare, bur occurs mostly in lung cancer. The glomerular lesion usually exhibits membranous nephropathy. Although surgical therapy has been shown to be effective, the treatment of a paraneoplastic nephrotic syndrome has always been a challenge. Currently no standard therapy has been established, if the paraneoplastic nephrotic syndrome is associated with advanced cancer with unresectable lesions. We present 2 cases having paraneoplastic nephrotic syndrome associated with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. radiation therapy of the primary tumor effectively caused regression of the paraneoplastic nephrotic syndrome without affecting the renal function. Our results suggest that irradiation can be the first choice in the treatment of nephrotic syndrome, if the primary tumor is unresectable. ( info)

9/238. Myeloperoxidase antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-positive necrotizing crescentic glomerulonephritis and membranous glomerulonephropathy.

    In September 1997, a 68-year-old woman was found to have proteinuria and renal dysfunction. In December 1997, renal biopsy revealed necrotizing crescentic glomerulonephritis and membranous glomerulonephropathy. We diagnosed myeloperoxidase antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-positive necrotizing crescentic glomerulonephritis and membranous glomerulonephropathy because of the presence of necrotizing cellular crescents and spike lesions in the subepithelial region of the glomerular basement membrane. After steroid therapy, the antibody level and the incidence of cellular crescents showed a decrease. This is a rare case of myeloperoxidase antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-positive necrotizing crescentic glomerulonephritis associated with membranous glomerulonephropathy. ( info)

10/238. Clopidogrel and membranous nephropathy.

    Membranous nephropathy with nephrotic syndrome occurred in a patient with anterior myocardial infarction 2 months after the start of clopidogrel treatment. Sensitisation by prior treatment with ticlopidine is discussed. ( info)
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