Cases reported "heat exhaustion"

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1/91. A case of manslaughter by heat-stroke.

    In the course of his treatment by a herbalist who had undertaken to cure his disability, a mildly spastic retarded four-year-old child was immersed in a heap of fermenting horse manure for 40 minutes. He was unconscious when removed and died two days later despite intensive care in a children's hospital. When medical aid was sought a false history was given and the true nature of the child's illness, heat stroke, was not determined until after death. The herbalist was subsequently convicted of manslaughter. ( info)

2/91. An unusual presentation of ascending aortic arch dissection.

    The following case report is that of a young man who collapsed on a golf course during a heat advisory. The prehospital presentation suggested that the patient was suffering from heat exhaustion. In the Emergency Department, the patient's condition continued to deteriorate despite aggressive rehydration and cooling efforts. Aggressive evaluation and treatment of the patient led to the diagnosis of an acute painless dissection of the ascending aorta. ( info)

3/91. hyponatremia associated with overhydration in U.S. Army trainees.

    This report describes a series of hyponatremia hospitalizations associated with heat-related injuries and apparent over-hydration. Data from the U.S. Army Inpatient Data System were used to identify all hospitalizations for hyposmolality/hyponatremia from 1996 and 1997. Admissions were considered as probable cases of overhydration hyponatremia if this was the only, or primary, diagnosis or if it was associated with any heat-related diagnosis. Seventeen medical records were identified, and the events leading to hospitalization were analyzed. The average serum sodium level was 122 /- 5 mmol/L (range, 115-130 mmol/L). All 17 patients were soldiers attending training schools. Seventy-seven percent of hyponatremia cases occurred in the first 4 weeks of training. Nine patients had water intake rates equal to or exceeding 2 quarts per hour. Most patients were in good health before developing hyponatremia. The most common symptoms were mental status changes (88%), emesis (65%), nausea (53%), and seizures (31%). In 5 of 6 cases in which extensive history was known, soldiers drank excess amounts of water before developing symptoms and as part of field treatment. The authors conclude that hyponatremia resulted from too aggressive fluid replacement practices for soldiers in training status. The fluid replacement policy was revised with consideration given to both climatic heat stress and physical activity levels. Field medical policy should recognize the possibility of overhydration. Specific evacuation criteria should be established for exertional illness. ( info)

4/91. Transient hypohidrosis induced by topiramate.

    PURPOSE: hypohidrosis during topiramate (TPM) treatment was recently reported in children. We describe an adult epilepsy patient who developed inability to sweat as well as heat intolerance while undergoing treatment with TPM. methods: To detect the site of the sweat block, patient underwent examination of sweat gland function, cardiovascular autonomic test, and body temperature rhythm determination. RESULTS: During TPM treatment, cardiovascular autonomic function and circadian rhythm of body core temperature were normal, whereas thermoregulatory sweat test (TST) showed anhydrosis. This adverse drug effect was quickly resolved after drug discontinuation. CONCLUSIONS: Because of normal cardiovascular autonomic function and central and peripheral thermoregulatory mechanisms, we hypothesize that hypohidrosis during TPM treatment could be due to a carbonic anhydrases (CA) block at the level of sweat gland. ( info)

5/91. An autopsy case of infant death due to heat stroke.

    We report an autopsy case of infant death due to heat stroke. On a winter day, a 52-day-old female baby was placed under a Japanese electric foot warmer with a coverlet (kotatsu) on an electric carpet warmer in a heated room at home. After about 5 h, the mother noticed that the baby was unconscious and took her to a hospital. Spontaneous respiration, however, was already absent, and the pupils were dilated. The trunk was hot; body temperature was 41.3 degrees C. The skin of the whole body was dry. autopsy revealed second-degree burn injuries on the left side of the face and the dorsum of the left hand. Numerous marked petechiae and ecchymoses were found in the thymus (capsule and parenchyma), pleurae (visceral and parietal), pericardial cavity (internal and external surfaces), epicardium, and beneath the serosa at the origin of the aorta. In addition, there was congestion in various organs, edema in the brain and lungs, and hemorrhage in the lungs. Histopathologically, macrophages without hemosiderin granules were present in the alveoli. When the heating conditions at the accident were reproduced experimentally, the temperature in the electric kotatsu warmer rose to 50-60 degrees C. Thus, we concluded that misuse of the electric kotatsu caused heat stroke in this infant. ( info)

6/91. Chronic idiopathic anhydrosis--a rare cause of heat stroke.

    A 27 year old man presented with heat stroke following exposure to a humid, hot environment in the absence of physical exertion. Investigation revealed the presence of generalized anhydrosis without evidence of an associated disease. Although chronic idiopathic anhydrosis is rare, this entity should be considered in cases of unexplained heat intolerance and heat stroke. ( info)

7/91. Fatal exertional heat stroke: a case series.

    BACKGROUND: Exertional heat stroke (EHS) is one of the most serious conditions that occur when excess heat, generated by muscular exercise, exceeds the body's heat-dissipation rate. The consequent elevated body core temperature causes damage to the body's tissues, resulting in a characteristic multiorgan syndrome, which is occasionally fatal. methods: We analyzed the fatal EHS cases that occurred in the Israeli Defence Forces during the last decade according to Minard's paradigm for evaluation of EHS predisposing factors, aiming to characterize the common features and unique circumstances leading to fatality. RESULTS: Accumulation of predisposing factors, particularly those concerning training regulations, coupled with inappropriate treatment at site, were found to be strong predictors of a grave prognosis. Analysis of the pathologic findings of the fatal EHS cases on autopsy revealed a possible association between the duration and length of exercise prior to EHS occurrence and the extent of pathologic findings. CONCLUSIONS: Strict adherence to existing training regulations may prevent further heat stroke fatalities. ( info)

8/91. Heatstroke. Underlying processes and lifesaving management.

    Heatstroke occurs during intense physical exertion or environmental exposure to heat without exertion. The ability to eliminate heat is limited by volume depletion, cardiac and vascular insufficiency, and skin disorders or protective coverings that prevent sweating and evaporative heat loss. Also, many drugs predispose patients to heatstroke by impairing normal thermoregulatory function. Critical management strategies include (1) recognition of hyperthermia, (2) rapid cooling, and (3) supportive care and observation for heat-related complications of tissue injury (eg, hepatic failure, renal failure, disseminated intravascular coagulation). ( info)

9/91. Is there a link between malignant hyperthermia and exertional heat illness?

    Exertional heat illness (EHI) and malignant hyperthermia (MH) are two potentially lethal conditions. It has been suggested that a subset of MH susceptible persons may be predisposed to EHI. We examine the current understanding of these disorders and explore evidence of a relationship. Screening for the muscle type I ryanodine receptor gene should help clarify the relationship between MH and EHI. ( info)

10/91. heat stroke-induced multiple organ failure.

    The effect of excessive heat accumulated in the body is life threatening. It could damage not only body fluid electrolyte haemostasis, but kidney, liver, and hematologic function. The example reported herein was a Thai laborer, previously healthy, 32 years of age. He joined the tricycle race from Chiang Mai to Lumpoon, which is about 30 km. The tournament was held on a late morning of high humidity and a temperature of 35 degrees C. After biking 25 km, he began having heavy perspiration and suffered from severe myalgia and high fever. He suddenly lapsed into unconsciousness and fell down. He was admitted to the Lumpoon Hospital because of convulsions, and 2 days afterward, anuria, anemia, thrombocytopenia, coagulopathy, and liver impairment were detected. He was later transferred to the faculty of medicine for further intensive treatment. Lab analyses showed marked azotemia (BUN 96 mg%, Cr 10.6 mg%), elevation of muscle enzyme (CPK greater than 1000 U/L, SGOT greater than 650 U/L), liver failure (SGPT greater than 650 U/L, DB/TB = 23.0/30.0 mg%) and disseminated coagulopathy; platelet 17,000/mm3, PT 51.1 sec (control 12.5), and PTT 73.5 sec (control 37.7). He was treated with bicarbonated hemodialysis trice weekly. blood-exchange transfusion was performed 3 times during the first 2 weeks with 10 units of fresh whole blood in each exchange. His ventilation required support by a ventilator. After a month, his consciousness, the liver function, and hematologic conditions became to recuperate. By 6 weeks postadmission, renal function eventually improved. This report is intended to warn the unprepared athlete entering an extreme, long-lasting exercise in an inappropriate climate. ( info)
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