Cases reported "hemianopsia"

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1/432. A case of amnestic syndrome caused by a subcortical haematoma in the right occipital lobe.

    A case of an amnestic syndrome caused by a subcortical haematoma in the right occipital lobe is reported. A 62-year-old right-handed man presented with a sudden onset of headache to the hospital. On admission, he had a left homonymous hemianopsia, disorientation and recent memory disturbance, but had normal remote memory and digit span. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a subcortical haematoma in the right occipital lobe. These findings suggest that the patient's amnesia was caused by a lesion of the retrosplenial region in the non-dominant hemisphere. ( info)

2/432. Surgical treatment of internal carotid artery anterior wall aneurysm with extravasation during angiography--case report.

    A 54-year-old female presented subarachnoid hemorrhage from an aneurysm arising from the anterior (dorsal) wall of the internal carotid artery (ICA). During four-vessel angiography, an extravasated saccular pooling of contrast medium emerged in the suprasellar area unrelated to any arterial branch. The saccular pooling was visualized in the arterial phase and cleared in the venophase during every contrast medium injection. We suspected that the extravasated pooling was surrounded by hard clot but communicated with the artery. Direct surgery was performed but major premature bleeding occurred during the microsurgical procedure. After temporary clipping, an opening of the anterior (dorsal) wall of the ICA was found without apparent aneurysm wall. The vessel wall was sutured with nylon thread. The total occlusion time of the ICA was about 50 minutes. Follow-up angiography demonstrated good patency of the ICA. About 2 years after the operation, the patient was able to walk with a stick and to communicate freely through speech, although left hemiparesis and left homonymous hemianopsia persisted. The outcome suggests our treatment strategy was not optimal, but suture of the ICA wall is one of the therapeutic choices when premature rupture occurs in the operation. ( info)

3/432. Cerebral metastasis presenting with altitudinal field defect.

    A 75-year-old man presented with a unilateral inferior altitudinal visual field defect and a history of weight loss and night sweats. The acuity in the affected eye was 20/200, otherwise his ocular examination was normal. neuroimaging demonstrated a post-fixed chiasm, with a frontal metastasis compressing the intracerebral portion of the optic nerve. A chest x-ray showed classical cannon ball lesions, secondary to malignant melanoma. This is the first case report of an intracerebral tumor producing an inferior altitudinal field defect. ( info)

4/432. Palinopsia with bacterial brain abscess and noonan syndrome.

    Though positive visual symptoms can be psychological in nature, or can result from a perceptive or anxious patients recognizing optical principals in the eye itself, this case illustrates how a thorough history is required to delineate those rarer signs which accompany serious macular or neuro-ophthalmic pathology. ( info)

5/432. On the visual disturbances associated with massive basal aneurysms.

    When massive basal aneurysms compromise the anterior visual pathways the resulting disturbances of vision are diverse and a firm clinical diagnosis is difficult. Because of the rarity of the condition, a critical analysis of the visual defects was made in five personally studied patients with large anterior basal aneurysms in an effort to clarify the clinical features of the disorder. These observations were related to those reported in larger series of patients by Jefferson and Bull. This study gives support to the opinion that the commonest visual defect seen with massive basal aneurysms is impairment of visual acuity, followed next in frequency by bitemporal hemianopia, and then by junction scotoma. ( info)

6/432. Bilateral altitudinal anopia caused by infarction of the calcarine cortex.

    The patient reported here had a bilateral inferior altitudinal hemianopia from lesions of the calcarine (striate) cortex of the occipital lobes. The only significant pathologic findings were bilateral calcarine artery occlusive disease, with infarcts of the striate cortex on both sides. The ages of the infarcts appeared compatible with the clinical development of the respective visual field defects. The rest of the visual system was anatomically intact. ( info)

7/432. visual perception of motion, luminance and colour in a human hemianope.

    Human patients rendered cortically blind by lesions to V1 can nevertheless discriminate between visual stimuli presented to their blind fields. Experimental evidence suggests that two response modes are involved. patients are either unaware or aware of the visual stimuli, which they are able to discriminate. However, under both conditions patients insist that they do not see. We investigate the fundamental difference between percepts derived for the normal and affected hemifield in a human hemianope with visual stimuli of which he was aware. The psychophysical experiments we employed required the patient, GY, to make comparisons between stimuli presented in his affected and normal hemifields. The subject discriminated between, and was allowed to match, the stimuli. Our study reveals that the stimulus parameters of colour and motion can be discriminated and matched between the normal and blind hemifields, whereas brightness cannot. We provide evidence for associations between the percepts of colour and motion, but a dissociation between the percepts of brightness, derived from the normal and hemianopic fields. Our results are consistent with the proposal that the perception of different stimulus attributes is expressed in activity of functionally segregated visual areas of the brain. We also believe our results explain the patient's insistence that he does not see stimuli, but can discriminate between them with awareness. ( info)

8/432. hemianopsia related to dissection of the internal carotid artery.

    Spontaneous dissection of the internal carotid artery is typically associated with cerebral vascular infarction along the anterior and middle cerebral distribution, whereas occipital infarction is usually related to posterior circulation abnormalities. hemianopsia with occipital infarction related to carotid artery dissection has therefore rarely been reported. A 40-year-old woman in whom acute-onset hemianopsia developed, related to occipital infarction secondary to internal artery dissection, is described. This atypical association is explained by anatomic variations of the posterior part of the circle of willis. Neuroimages showed occipital infarction related to internal carotid artery dissection associated with hypoplasia of the proximal portion of the cerebral posterior artery (P1). The anatomic correlation of this atypical association and a review of the literature are presented. ( info)

9/432. When the left brain is not right the right brain may be left: report of personal experience of occipital hemianopia.

    OBJECTIVES: To make a personal report of a hemianopia due to an occipital infarct, sustained by a professor of neurology. methods: Verbatim observation of neurological phenomena recorded during the acute illness. RESULTS: Hemianopia, visual hallucinations, and non-occipital deficits without extraoccipital lesions on MRI, are described and discussed. CONCLUSIONS: Hemianopia, due to an occipital infarct, without alexia, is not a disability which precludes a normal professional career. Neurorehabilitation has not been necessary. ( info)

10/432. Activation of the remaining hemisphere following stimulation of the blind hemifield in hemispherectomized subjects.

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural substrates mediating residual vision in the "blind" hemifield of hemispherectomized patients. The visual stimuli were semicircular gratings moving in opposite directions on a dynamic random-dot background. They were specifically constructed to eliminate intra- and extraocular light scatter and optimize the activation of extrastriate cortical areas and their subcortical relays. Multislice T2*-weighted gradient echo (GE) echoplanar imaging (EPI) images (TR/TE = 4 s/45 ms, flip angle 90 degrees ) were acquired during activation and baseline visual stimulation. An activation minus baseline subtraction was performed, and the acquired t statistic map transformed into the stereotaxic coordinate space of Talairach and Tournoux. In seven normal control subjects, right hemifield stimulation produced significant activation foci in contralateral V1/V2, V3/V3A, VP, and V5 (MT). Significant activation was also produced in homologous regions of the right occipital lobe with left hemifield stimulation. Stimulation of the intact hemifield in hemispherectomized patients resulted in activation of similar areas exclusively within the contralateral hemisphere. Stimulation of the anopic hemifield produced statistically significant activation in the ipsilateral occipital lobe (putative area V5 or MT) and areas V3/V3A in the only subject with blindsight. We conclude that the remaining hemisphere may contribute to residual visual functions in the blind hemifield of hemispherectomized patients, possibly through the collicular-pulvinar route since the activated areas are known to receive their afferents from these subcortical nuclei. ( info)
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