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1/22. Genetic detection and isolation of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus, kosovo, yugoslavia.

    Crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus (C-CHFV) strains were isolated from a fatal case and the attending physician in kosovo, yugoslavia. Early, rapid diagnosis of the disease was achieved by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The physician was successfully treated with oral ribavirin. These cases yielded the first genetically studied C-CHFV human isolates in the Balkans. ( info)

2/22. A patient with Crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever serologically diagnosed by recombinant nucleoprotein-based antibody detection systems.

    We treated a male patient with Crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF). The diagnosis of CCHF was confirmed by reverse transcription-PCR and recombinant nucleoprotein (rNP)-based immunoglobulin g (IgG) and IgM capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays of serially collected serum samples. The patient was treated with intravenous ribavirin and recovered with no consequences. The study indicates that rNP-based CCHF virus antibody detection systems are useful for confirming CCHF virus infections. This case also suggests that intravenous ribavirin therapy may be promising for the treatment of CCHF patients. ( info)

3/22. Short report: Crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever outbreak in Rawalpindi, pakistan, February 2002.

    A nosocomial outbreak of Crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever occurred in Rawalpindi, pakistan in February 2002. The identified index case died shortly after admission to a hospital. Two of the health care workers became secondary cases; one of them died on day 13 after coming in contact with the index case. The other secondary case was successfully treated with oral ribavirin. ( info)

4/22. Possible horizontal transmission of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus from a mother to her child.

    The case of a child with Crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) presumably infected with CCHF virus from her 27-year-old mother is described. The mother with CCHF was treated with ribavirin and did not present with any symptoms of obvious hemorrhage. The child developed fever on the 5th day after the mother's onset. The partial virus genome was amplified by RT-PCR, and nested PCR from the child and the genome sequence were identical to that from the mother, indicating possible transmission of the virus from mother to child. This case indicates the importance of preventive measures for in-house outbreaks of CCHF. ( info)

5/22. Crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever, mauritania.

    From February to August 2003, 38 persons were infected with Crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus in mauritania; 35 of these persons were residents of Nouakchott. The first patient was a young woman who became ill shortly after butchering a goat. She transmitted the infection to 15 persons in the hospital where she was admitted and four members of her family. In Nouakchott, two disease clusters and 11 isolated cases were identified. The case-fatality ratio was 28.6%. Of the patients not infected by the first case-patient, almost half were butchers, which suggests that the primary mode of animal-to-human transmission was direct contact with blood of infected animals. The hospital outbreak alerted health authorities to sporadic cases that occurred in the following weeks, which would have probably gone otherwise unnoticed. Studies must be conducted to determine the potential risk for continued sporadic outbreaks of CCHF in humans and to propose prevention measures. ( info)

6/22. Crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever outbreak in Rawalpindi, pakistan, February 2002: contact tracing and risk assessment.

    A 25-year-old woman, later identified as index case of Crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF), presented to Holy family Hospital in Rawalpindi, pakistan with fever and generalized coagulopathy. A retrospective contact tracing was conducted to explore the modes of exposure possibly associated with transmission of CCHF infection among contacts. We traced 32 contacts of the index case and 158 contacts of secondary cases and tested them for IgG and IgM antibodies against CCHF virus by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. According to the type of exposure, contacts were divided into five subsets: percutaneous contact with blood, blood contact to unbroken skin, cutaneous contact to non-sanguineous body fluids, physical contact with patients without body fluids contact, and close proximity without touching. Two out of four contacts who reported percutaneous exposure tested positive for antibodies to CCHF virus. We conclude that simple barrier methods and care in provision of CCHF cases may prevent transmission of this infection. ( info)

7/22. Crimean congo hemorrhagic fever infection simulating acute appendicitis.

    An unusual cause of acute abdominal pain simulating acute appendicitis is presented. The patient was admitted with complaints of fever, malaise, headache, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, and severe bleeding. Based on the clinical and epidemiological findings, a diagnosis of Crimean congo hemorrhagic fever virus infection was suspected, and ribavirin therapy was started. While her clinical condition was improving, she experienced a sudden pain at her right lower quadrant of the abdomen. Explorative laparotomy revealed haemorrhage within the abdominal muscles. Her CCHF IgM was found to be positive. ( info)

8/22. Compartment syndrome: an unusual course for a rare disease.

    We report a case of compartment syndrome of the left upper limb following hemorrhage due to Crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever in a 45-year-old man. As far as we know, there is not such a report in the literature. We discuss clinical manifestations, electrophysiologic findings, differential diagnosis, and management of the patient. A high degree of awareness for an early diagnosis may participate to improve the poor prognosis. ( info)

9/22. Imported Crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever.

    Crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne disease that may also be transmitted through person-to-person transmission by exposure to infected body fluids. Despite its wide geographic distribution in animals, CCHF virus is rarely associated with recognized human diseases. We report the first case of imported CCHF in france. ( info)

10/22. Genotoxic effect of ribavirin in patients with Crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever.

    In this study, we investigated the in vivo genotoxicity of ribavirin in humans, studying 3 patients with Crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever who were treated with high-dose ribavirin. In order to evaluate genotoxicity, both the micronucleus (MN) test and the sister chromatid exchange (SCE) test were used. In all patients, blood samples were taken during and after therapy. Whole blood cultures were performed for 72 h and the MN assay and SCE test were then carried out to demonstrate the genotoxicity. In all patients, both SCE and MN amounts were found to be higher in the samples which were taken during therapy than in those at 1 month after therapy. The results of our study reveal that ribavirin has a reversible in vivo genotoxic effect on humans. ( info)
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