Cases reported "Hepatitis, Alcoholic"

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1/63. Triggering of acute alcoholic hepatitis by alpha-interferon therapy.

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Alcohol may induce autoimmunity by recognition of acetaldehyde-modified proteins which may be implicated in the pathogenicity of acute alcoholic hepatitis. We report here the potential role of alpha-interferon, a potent inducer of the autoimmunity process, in inducing alcoholic hepatitis. methods: We analyzed clinical, biological, virological and histological features in two cases where alpha-interferon treatment for HCV-related hepatitis led to a marked increase in aminotransferase activities. RESULTS: alpha-interferon as treatment of HCV-related hepatitis seemed to exacerbate acute alcoholic hepatitis despite moderate alcohol consumption. In Case 1, moderate daily alcohol intake of 40 g during therapy led to biopsy-proven acute alcoholic hepatitis, while the same consumption before therapy did not. In Case 2, before treatment, the liver biopsy showed mild acute alcoholic hepatitis; aminotransferases increased during alpha-interferon therapy, although no increase in alcohol intake was observed. CONCLUSION: alpha-interferon therapy by its immunomodulatory properties could be implicated in alteration of the course of acute alcoholic hepatitis. These observations emphasize that the decision to treat with alpha-interferon when there is even moderate alcohol consumption should be carefully weighted in HCV-infected patients. ( info)

2/63. Alcoholic hepatitis-the case for intensive management.

    Alcoholic hepatitis is a common condition with a high mortality. Although treatment options for established alcoholic hepatitis are limited, many of the complications of this condition are preventable. This case report and discussion illustrate the important role of early diagnosis and intervention in this patient group. Important management points are stressed to aid physicians who may encounter this condition rarely. ( info)

3/63. Two patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis accompanied by hypercytokinemia and granulocytic hyperelastasemia, successfully treated by intravenous infusion of urinastarine (Miraclid).

    Severe alcoholic hepatitis (SAH) is not simply a disease of the liver, but it also causes infection and multiple organ failure, and therefore carries an extremely poor prognosis. We report the successful treatment of two patients with SAH. Case 1: The patient was a 55-year-old man. He was a heavy drinker whose alcohol intake had increased for some 3 years to 1.8 L sake a day. Slight clouding of consciousness, fever, and jaundice were evident on his admission to our hospital. Laboratory data showed leukocytosis with a predominance of polymorphonuclear leukocytes, and a decline in coagulability. He tested negative for various hepatitis virus markers. With the diagnosis of SAH made, steroid pulse therapy and bilirubin adsorption therapy were administered. The jaundice improved and the interleukin-8 (IL-8) level decreased. Continuous intravenous infusion of urinastarine (Miraclid) normalized the granulocyte elastase level. Improvement was also seen in coagulability, ascites, icterus and consciousness. Case 2: The patient was a 49-year-old man. He was a heavy drinker whose alcohol intake had increased for 1 month. fever, jaundice, ascites, and mild disturbance of consciousness were evident at the time of admission. Examination on admission diagnosed SAH. bilirubin adsorption and continuous intravenous infusion of urinastarine were initiated. As a result, circulating IL-8 level was decreased and coagulability was improved. Therapy for granulocytic hyperelastasemia and hypercytokinemia supervening on SAH is a new effective approach on improvement in the disease. ( info)

4/63. A clinicopathological study of acute hepatitis in heavy drinkers, unrelated to hepatitis a, B, or C viruses.

    BACKGROUND: There are six histological classifications of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) in japan. However, it is unclear whether all cases of the disease conform to these criteria. This study investigated the clinicopathological features of eight histologically unusual cases of ALD. methods: The characteristic features of alcohol drinking behavior, subjective and objective symptoms, laboratory data on admission, and progress after admission were analyzed for eight patients with acute-onset hepatitis. RESULT: The eight patients showed histologically acute hepatitis, with much spotty necrosis that contained granular ceroid pigment by kupffer cells, which indicated acute parenchymal damage of the liver, but with no mallory bodies and unremarkable intrasinusoidal neutrophilic infiltration. The only etiological factor for all the cases was habitual alcohol consumption, with increased consumption just before the onset of symptoms. In five cases that were tested, the patients were negative for hepatic viral markers, which included hepatitis G virus RNA and TT virus dna. CONCLUSION: Some cases of ALD may not conform to the current histological classifications in either japan or Western countries. It seems natural to consider that these cases are developed by other, unknown causes that overlap with ALD rather than as a result of damage from alcoholic overload. ( info)

5/63. autopsy case of alcoholic hepatitis and cirrhosis treated with corticosteroids and affected by pneumocystis carinii and cytomegalovirus pneumonia.

    A case of the very early phase of pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in a human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-negative man with alcoholic hepatitis and cirrhosis treated with steroids is presented. A 40-year-old man with a 10-year history of alcohol abuse was admitted to hospital with jaundice, fever and macrohematuria. Laboratory examinations revealed neutrophilic leukocytosis and a serum bilirubin level of 13.9 mg/dL. The serum bilirubin level rose to 28.5 mg/dL over 1 month. prednisolone administered orally for 10 days produced a slight improvement in the jaundice and fever. After an interval of a week, it was resumed and maintained for 22 days (total dose, 1555 mg) until the patient died of a massive hemorrhage from ruptured vessels of a gastric ulcer. An autopsy disclosed P. carinii pneumonia in the lower lobe of the left lung, cytomegalovirus infection in both lungs and the esophagus, and esophageal candidiasis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of P. carinii pneumonia together with cytomegalovirus infection in an hiv-negative alcoholic patient. The present case suggests that a rare opportunistic infection such as P. carinii pneumonia might be caused by treating cirrhosis and alcoholic hepatitis with corticosteroids, even if only for a relatively short period. ( info)

6/63. Steroidal management and serum cytokine profile of a case of alcoholic hepatitis with leukemoid reaction.

    Leukemoid reactions (LRs) are rare in alcoholic hepatitis (AH), but they are a sign of poor prognosis. The treatment of AH with corticosteroids is controversial, though several reports suggest that these should be used in severe cases of AH. We report a case of AH-associated LRs that presented with an increase of the serum concentrations of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-18 (an initiator of inflammation) and IL-1beta (likely responsible for the neutrophilia of the LRs). These findings provided a pathogenic indication for the use of corticosteroids (that block the transcription of IL-1beta), and this approach achieved a clinical and analytical recovery in our patient. This pathogenic mechanism might also underlie other cases of LRs and other complications of AH, thus providing a rationale for the benefits of corticotherapy in these rare but severe conditions. ( info)

7/63. Cases from the Osler Medical Service at Johns Hopkins University.

    A 37-year-old woman presented with increasing abdominal pain and jaundice. Six weeks before admission, she developed persistent diarrhea and jaundice of the skin. She also bruised easily, and her gums bled. In the subsequent weeks, her appetite decreased, she was fatigued, and she had nausea, vomiting, and abdominal distension. She had a history of drinking 1 quart of vodka every day for 20 years, with brief periods of abstinence; she stopped consuming alcohol 11 days before admission because it no longer provided symptomatic relief. Her past medical history was also notable for depression, including a suicide attempt 4 years earlier. She did not smoke, use illicit drugs, or have unprotected sexual intercourse. She had received no blood transfusions and had not traveled recently. She took no medications, except for occasional ibuprofen.On physical examination, she was thin and deeply jaundiced, and she trembled and responded slowly to questions. She was afebrile but tachypneic, and she had orthostatic hypotension. Her HEENT examination was notable for scleral and sublingual icterus, as well as crusted blood on her gums and teeth. The jugular veins were flat. The cardiac examination revealed tachycardia (heart rate, 103 beats per minute) without murmurs, rubs, or gallops. The abdomen was nontender and protuberant, with hypoactive bowel sounds; the spleen was not palpable, and there was no fluid wave or caput medusae. The liver percussed to 18 cm, with a smooth edge extending 10 cm below the costal margin. She had cutaneous telangiectases on her chest and bilateral palmar erythema. There was no peripheral edema. The neurologic examination was notable for asterixis. Her stool was guaiac positive. Laboratory studies revealed the following values: hematocrit, 21.2%; white blood cells, 17,310/mm(3); ammonia, 42 micromol/L; serum creatinine, 3.9 mg/dL; serum urea nitrogen, 70 mg/dL; albumin, 2.1 g/dL; total bilirubin, 26.8 mg/dL; alanine aminotransferase, 14 U/L; aspartate aminotransferase, 77 U/L; alkaline phosphatase, 138 U/L; prothrombin time, 103 seconds (international normalized ratio, 10.6); and urinary sodium, <5 mg/dL. urinalysis revealed an elevated specific gravity and numerous muddy granular casts. hepatitis a, B, and C serologies were negative. On abdominal ultrasound examination, there was no ascites, and the liver was echogenic. The portal and hepatic veins were patent, and the hepatic arteries were normal. The spleen measured 14 cm.What is the diagnosis? ( info)

8/63. Severe alcoholic hepatitis accompanied by Fournier's gangrene.

    Fulminant necrotizing soft-tissue infection of the external genitalia and perineum (Fournier's gangrene) occurred in a patient with severe alcoholic hepatitis. By means of radical debridement and disinfection of the necrotizing tissue, use of broad-spectrum antibiotics and prednisolone, and other supportive measures, Fournier's gangrene and severe alcoholic hepatitis eventually subsided with broad skin defects in the waist and external genitalia. Later, the skin defects were successfully reconstructed with skin grafts. Although the route of bacterial intrusion could not be defined, Fournier's gangrene presumably developed in a background of impaired immunological defences, principally associated with habitual massive alcohol consumption and profound liver dysfunction. This present case highlights not only the underlying immunocompromised condition but also the need for concern regarding the urogenital and anorectal areas as potential foci of life-threatening infection in patients with liver dysfunction, especially when related to alcohol intake. ( info)

9/63. A case of recurrent acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis due to beta-lactam antibiotics: a case report.

    A case of acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) is presented. The case is notable for the recurrent episodes of AGEP, caused by three beta-lactam antibiotics (piperacillin, ceftazidime, and meropenem) in septicemic patient. The case represents the first report of the reaction developing in response to these three antibiotics. The report is also notable for the spontaneous resolution of the rash in all the three episodes. ( info)

10/63. rhabdomyolysis, hepatitis and multiple hematological disorders associated with alcohol abuse: a case report.

    A 68-year old Japanese male with alcohol related rhabdomyolysis, hepatitis, and hematological disorders is presented. Biochemical data showed markedly elevated levels of serum hepatobiliary enzymes, lactate dehydrogenase and myoglobin, and decreased levels of serum sodium and phosphate. The serum creatine kinase level was approximately 40 times higher than the normal upper limit with 97% of MM fraction. Clinical manifestations of rhabdomyolysis, such as myalgia, muscle weakness and acute renal failure, were not recognized. Hematological examinations revealed mild neutropenia, lymphopenia, monocytopenia and thrombocytopenia but no anemia or macrocytosis. Initial treatment of an intravenous infusion of saline (30 mL/Kg body weight) and subsequent low sodium diet was successfully completed without severe complications. All the abnormal laboratory data were normalized within three weeks of his hospitalization. We suggest that hyponatremia and hypophosphatemia may be involved in the development of rhabdomyolysis, hepatitis and hematological disorders. ( info)
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