Cases reported "Hip Fractures"

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1/325. Pseudoaneurysm of the profunda femoris artery due to intertrochanteric fracture of the hip.

    Arterial injury caused by hip fracture is a rare event. We report a case of pseudoaneurysm of the profunda femoris artery that presented 4 weeks after correction of an intertrochanteric hip fracture with a dynamic hip screw. The diagnosis was confirmed by Duplex ultrasound scanning, and it was treated by ligation of the profunda femoris artery at the level of the pseudoaneurysm. ( info)

2/325. The Mt. Tyndall incident.

    The authors describe the 53-hour rescue of a 6-foot, 1-inch tall, 250-pound hiker in the face of harsh environmental conditions in sequoia National Park. This 43-year-old man fell 25 feet, injured his leg, and was noted to be hypothermic and hypovolemic. weather, altitude, and the patient's size delayed and complicated his evacuation. After being carried down 1,500 vertical feet, he was hoisted into a hovering helicopter and flown to University Medical Center in Fresno, california. On arrival, the patient was determined to have a comminuted subtrochanteric right femur fracture, which was ultimately repaired surgically. The authors also discuss some of the unique aspects of wilderness and National Park Service EMS. ( info)

3/325. MRI and CT features of hyperplastic callus in osteogenesis imperfecta tarda.

    We describe the MRI and CT findings of hyperplastic callus formation simulating a tumour of pelvis in patient with osteogenesis imperfecta tarda. Possible differential diagnoses and the impact of different imaging techniques on the correct diagnosis are discussed. ( info)

4/325. Massive pulmonary embolus in a 14 year old boy.

    Pulmonary embolus in children is rare. A case of massive pulmonary embolus, after surgery, in a child of 14 years is described. Accident and emergency doctors should be aware that pulmonary embolus can occur in children and exercise a high index of suspicion for the diagnosis in those patients with risk factors for the condition who present acutely with typical symptoms such as dyspnoea, chest pain, haemoptysis, or collapse. ( info)

5/325. Insufficiency fracture of the femoral neck after intramedullary nailing.

    We report a patient with insufficiency fracture that occurred after intramedullary nailing for a subtrochanteric fracture. Intramedullary nailing is speculated to have increased the stress in the already osteoporotic subcapital region. It therefore should be recognized as a causative factor in insufficiency fracture of the femoral neck. Careful follow-up is needed for patients with this condition. ( info)

6/325. Subcapital femoral neck fracture after closed reduction and internal fixation of an intertrochanteric hip fracture: a case report and review of the literature.

    A subcapital femoral neck fracture in a healed intertrochanteric fracture treated by an open reduction and internal fixation is a rare, but catastrophic, event. We present the case of an 86-year-old woman, a community ambulator, who sustained a displaced right intertrochanteric hip fracture during a fall. She was treated with closed reduction and internal fixation with a dynamic compression hip screw and side plate. Four months later, she was noted to have a displaced subcapital femoral neck fracture and underwent hip screw and side plate hardware removal and cemented bipolar hemiarthroplasty. Both postoperative recoveries were uncomplicated, and she was discharged to a rehabilitation facility able to ambulate with minimal assistance. This devastating complication in patients with osteoporosis may be prevented by deeper placement of the dynamic hip compression lag screw to within 5 mm to 8 mm of the subchondral bone, which may decrease the stress forces in the subcapital femoral neck. ( info)

7/325. Lateral insufficiency fractures of the femur caused by osteopenia and varus angulation: a complication of total hip arthroplasty.

    Lateral femoral insufficiency fractures in total hip arthroplasty occur due to osteopenia and varus positioning of the femoral component, the femur itself, or both. The presentation of these fractures can be unclear but usually involves the insidious onset of unexplained thigh or groin pain. The patients are likely to have significant comorbidities as well. Characteristic radiographic findings may be present, depending on when the patient presents. The insufficiency fractures generally occur at the level of the femoral stem tip on the lateral cortex of the femur. If left untreated, pain and loss of function continue. Eventually an insufficiency fracture can progress to a displaced periprosthetic fracture. Nonsurgical treatment is not successful. Recommended treatment involves revision to a long-stem femoral component. The risk of postoperative complications is significant. ( info)

8/325. Insufficiency subchondral fracture of the femoral head.

    The authors recently encountered a 65-year-old osteoporotic woman who had had intractable pain in the hip joint that was diagnosed clinically as osteonecrosis. She was treated by total hip replacement. Histopathologically, the most striking finding was the presence of a subchondral fracture with associated callus formation and granulation tissue along both sides of the fracture line. There was no evidence of antecedent osteonecrosis. This case was diagnosed histopathologically as insufficiency subchondral fracture of the femoral head. This is the first case report to substantiate the presence of insufficiency subchondral fracture of the femoral head by both gross and microscopic examination. Because the treatment and management of insufficiency subchondral fracture are entirely different from osteonecrosis, it is important to differentiate between these two conditions. ( info)

9/325. scalp laceration: an obvious 'occult' cause of shock.

    scalp lacerations are often present in patients requiring emergency care for blunt trauma. These injuries are most commonly seen in unrestrained drivers or occupants involved in motor vehicle crashes in which the victim is partially or totally ejected. patients with scalp lacerations often have associated injuries that redirect the clinician's attention to other injury sites. Some scalp lacerations are severe enough to cause hypovolemic shock and acute anemia. If the patient arrives in shock, the perfusion pressure may be low, and there may be minimal active scalp bleeding. Under such circumstances, the scalp wound may be initially dismissed as trivial and attention appropriately turned to assuring an adequate airway, establishing intravenous lines, initiating volume resuscitation, and searching for more "occult" sources of blood loss. However, as the blood pressure returns toward normal, bleeding from the scalp wound becomes more profuse and presents a hemostatic challenge to the clinician. A case presentation illustrates some of these issues and confirms the effectiveness of an often overlooked but simple technique to control scalp hemorrhage--Raney clip application. ( info)

10/325. coma from fat embolism syndrome after hemiarthroplasty of the hip for metastatic breast cancer to the proximal femur: a case report.

    We present a case report of fat embolism syndrome (FES) that resulted in prolonged coma after cemented hemiarthroplasty in a patient with metastatic breast cancer. After the cemented hip prosthesis was placed, the patient developed decreased sensorium that progressed to coma in association with hypoxemia and tachypnea. Pulmonary compromise was mild, and the patient required only supplemental oxygen for support. The patient demonstrated no petechiae. Magnetic imaging results were consistent with FES. While the pulmonary symptoms resolved quickly, the patient remained unresponsive for 11 days without purposeful motor function. After waking she recovered rapidly, and at her 2-month follow-up appointment, demonstrated no adverse orthopedic, pulmonary, or neurologic sequelae. ( info)
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