Cases reported "Hiv Infections"

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1/2221. Analysis of the adult thymus in reconstitution of T lymphocytes in hiv-1 infection.

    A key question in understanding the status of the immune system in hiv-1 infection is whether the adult thymus contributes to reconstitution of peripheral T lymphocytes. We analyzed the thymus in adult patients who died of hiv-1 infection. In addition, we studied the clinical course of hiv-1 infection in three patients thymectomized for myasthenia gravis and determined the effect of antiretroviral therapy on CD4( ) T cells. We found that five of seven patients had thymus tissue at autopsy and that all thymuses identified had inflammatory infiltrates surrounding lymphodepleted thymic epithelium. Two of seven patients also had areas of thymopoiesis; one of these patients had peripheral blood CD4( ) T-cell levels of <50/mm3 for 51 months prior to death. Of three thymectomized patients, one rapidly progressed to AIDS, one progressed to AIDS over seven years (normal progressor), whereas the third remains asymptomatic at least seven years after seroconversion. Both latter patients had rises in peripheral blood CD4( ) T cells after antiretroviral therapy. Most patients who died of complications of hiv-1 infection did not have functional thymus tissue, and when present, thymopoiesis did not prevent prolonged lymphopenia. thymectomy before hiv-1 infection did not preclude either peripheral CD4( ) T-cell rises or clinical responses after antiretroviral therapy. ( info)

2/2221. Supraventricular tachycardia in a human immunodeficiency virus-infected man.

    Although supraventricular tachycardias and human immunodeficiency virus infections are common diseases by themselves, a combination is not so common. Such a patient was encountered recently and described in this case report. Because misdiagnosis of tachyarrhythmias is not uncommon and may lead to inappropriate therapy-frequently resulting in acute clinical deterioration or even death, a discussion of management of supraventricular tachyarrhythmias in general was included. The recent introduction of adenosine into clinical use provides an effective agent in, and revolutionizes, the management of patients with supraventricular tachyarrhythmias. Its application, both for diagnostic and for therapeutic purposes, was discussed in some details in this report. ( info)

3/2221. stroke and seizures as the presenting signs of pediatric HIV infection.

    The authors report two pediatric patients with definite human immunodeficiency virus infection whose initial presentation was stroke and seizure. The first patient was a 3-year-old female who developed acute hemiparesis as the first manifestation. The other, a 2-month-old infant, had focal seizures secondary to cerebral infarction. Investigations revealed ischemic infarction of the thalamus, hypothalamus, and internal capsule in the first patient and cerebral cortex in the second. Further investigations failed to demonstrate any other causes of these cerebral infarctions. Opportunistic infection of the central nervous system was not documented. The authors emphasize that cerebrovascular accident may be the initial presentation in human immunodeficiency virus infection in children. Human immunodeficiency virus infection must be included in the differential diagnosis, and testing for the disease is mandatory in the investigation of stroke in any child who is at risk of having this infection. ( info)

4/2221. Minimizing HIV/AIDS malnutrition.

    HIV/AIDS malnutrition influences immune function, disease progression, and quality of life. Changes in dietary intake, altered metabolism, and malabsorption are among the mechanisms that contribute to the nutritional alterations seen in HIV/AIDS. Medical-surgical nurses can help their patients minimize HIV/AIDS malnutrition through early and ongoing assessment, which guides nutritional and pharmacologic interventions. ( info)

5/2221. Primary pulmonary hypertension in a patient with HIV infection.

    Several case-reports and small series suggest a causal relationship between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and pulmonary hypertension. We report on a HIV seropositive man with a high and stable cd4 lymphocyte count ( /- 600/mm3) who developed severe pulmonary hypertension, not attributable to other known causes. This case report underscores the fact that the degree of immunosuppression secondary to the HIV-infection seems to be of little relevance in the pathophysiology of the syndrome. HIV-infected patients with dyspnoea, not related to pulmonary infection, with exercise intolerance, syncope or precordial pain should receive an electrocardiogram and echocardiographic assessment. The exact pathogenetic mechanism of this rapidly progressive disease and whether anti-viral therapy should be promoted is still under investigation. ( info)

6/2221. Adrenal suppression in children with the human immunodeficiency virus treated with megestrol acetate.

    Symptoms and laboratory evidence of adrenal suppression developed in 2 children with the human immunodeficiency virus after megestrol acetate (MA) therapy was discontinued; both required transient glucocorticoid replacement therapy. High-dose corticotropin stimulation testing performed on children with the human immunodeficiency virus treated or not treated with MA showed that baseline and post-corticotropin cortisol levels were extremely low in 7 of 10 treated patients and normal in 10 of 10 members of a control group (P <.01). MA may suppress adrenal function, and replacement glucocorticoids may prevent or relieve associated symptoms at times of severe stress or on discontinuation of MA therapy. ( info)

7/2221. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) and cerebral toxoplasmosis in an adult patient, with no symptoms of underlying immunosuppressing illness.

    We present a case of the coincidence of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) and central nervous system (CNS) toxoplasmosis in an adult patient, without a detectable cause of cell-mediated immunity impairment. The proper diagnosis was made postmortem on the basis of histological changes typical of both pathological processes. PML was characterized by the presence of subcortical focal demyelination, containing enlarged, densely basophilic oligodendrocyte nuclei, often with intranuclear inclusion, and bizarre astrocytes, mimicking neoplastic cells. PML was confirmed by detecting numerous papova virus particles in oligo- and astroglial nuclei by thin-section electron microscopy. Cerebral toxoplasmosis was characterized by the presence of multiple well-circumscribed necrotizing abscesses. Numerous toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) cysts and free, non-encysted protozoan parasites were found among the inflammatory infiltrates. The diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis was further confirmed by immunocytochemistry. In order to detect putative immunosuppressive background underlying both pathological processes, HIV infection was taken into consideration, however, no histopathological changes indicative of AIDS either in the CNS or in the peripheral organs were eventually found. Moreover no HIV provirus genome was identified in the formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded brain tissue by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Current view on the selected aspects of the pathogenesis of both disorders were discussed. ( info)

8/2221. meningioma in four patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    We describe four patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who had development of meningiomas. In contrast to those in the general population who have meningiomas, all our patients were young men; the mean age was 40 years (range, 32 to 50). Their risk behavior for HIV was homosexuality (three patients) and intravenous drug use (one patient). The CD4 cell count in each of the three homosexual men was less than 50/microL and was 280/microL in the drug user. Imaging studies showed enhancing lesions in three of the patients. Although each of these meningiomas could have occurred in otherwise normal young to middle-aged men, we speculate that the meningiomas may have grown in these HIV-infected hosts because of either loss of immune function or dysregulation of cytokines. ( info)

9/2221. Synovial non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in a human immunodeficiency virus infected patient.

    We describe a case of articular non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) with malignant lymphoma cells observed in synovial fluid. Bone involvement in NHL is common, but an English language medline search revealed only 14 reported cases of synovial NHL. Although NHL is a well recognized complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, this is the first report of synovial NHL in an HIV infected patient. ( info)

10/2221. hiv-1 (p24)-positive multinucleated giant cells in HIV-associated lymphoepithelial lesion of the parotid gland. A report of two cases.

    BACKGROUND: Cystic benign lymphoepithelial lesion (CBLL) is a well-recognized parotid disorder the diagnosis of which can be made on the basis of clinical findings, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing, image studies and fine needle aspiration (FNA). Most aspirations are cystic, and the lesion can be recognized if the triad of foamy macrophages, lymphoid and epithelial (squamous) cells is observed. CASES: The authors recently observed FNA cytologic features of two HIV-associated cases that exhibited numerous multinucleated giant cells (MGCs) but failed to show the epithelial component. A subsequent surgical resection was performed in one patient. Similarly to what has been described for nasopharyngeal (adenoid and tonsil) lymphoid tissue of HIV-positive patients, intense immunoexpression of S-100 and p24 (hiv-1) protein was present in MGC. CONCLUSION: The diagnosis of HIV-associated CBLL should always be considered if a parotid cystic lesion presents with numerous MGCs. Immunocytochemical detection of p24 (hiv-1) protein in MGC becomes a very useful diagnostic aid and extends to parotid CBLL many of those pathogenic features of hiv-1 infection already noted in other hiv-1-infected, lymphoid oropharyngeal lesions. ( info)
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