Cases reported "Hydranencephaly"

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1/67. Congenital hydranencephalic-hydrocephalic syndrome associated with mitochondrial dysfunction.

    We report the case of a 3-year-old girl, the only child of a nonconsanguineous couple without relevant antecedents, who was born with hydranencephalic-hydrocephalic syndrome diagnosed by ultrasonography at gestation week 28, and who was treated during the neonatal period by implantation of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. She showed severe mental retardation, and died at age 4 years following an acute respiratory infection. Due to persistently high lactic acid levels in blood, muscle and skin biopsies were taken. Analysis of muscle biopsies revealed microscopic and ultrastructural alterations typical of mitochondrial disorders, and low levels of complexes III and IV of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. The enzymes of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex showed normal activities in cultured skin fibroblasts. These findings raise the possibility that at least some cases of congenital hydranencephalic-hydrocephalic syndrome may be due to alterations in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. ( info)

2/67. The novel genetic disorder microhydranencephaly maps to chromosome 16p13.3-12.1.

    We studied a large consanguineous Anatolian family with children who exhibited hydranencephaly associated with microcephaly. The children were severely affected. This novel genetic disorder is autosomal recessive. We used autozygosity mapping to identify a locus at chromosome 16p13.3-12.1; it has a lod score of 4.11. The gene locus is within a maximal 11-cM interval between markers D16S497 and D16S672 and within a minimal critical region of 8 cM between markers D16S748 and D16S490. ( info)

3/67. Prolonged survival with hydranencephaly: report of two patients and literature review.

    Infants with hydranencephaly are presumed to have a reduced life expectancy, with a survival of several weeks to months. Rarely, patients with prolonged survival have been reported, but these infants may have had other neurologic conditions that mimicked hydranencephaly, such as massive hydrocephalus or holoprosencephaly. We report two infants with prenatally acquired hydranencephaly who survived for 66 and 24 months. We reviewed published reports to ascertain the clinical and laboratory features associated with survival of more than 6 months. This review demonstrates that prolonged survival up to 19 years can occur with hydranencephaly, even without rostral brain regions, with isoelectric electroencephalograms, and with absent-evoked potentials. Finally, the ethical aspects of these findings, as they relate to anencephaly and organ transplantation, are discussed. ( info)

4/67. Hemihydranencephaly: case report and literature review.

    hydranencephaly is a severe brain condition characterized by complete or almost complete absence of cerebral cortex with preservation of meninges, basal ganglia, pons, medulla, cerebellum, and falx. It has been ascribed to different causes (infections, irradiations, fetal anoxia, medications, twin-twin transfusion), all leading to vascular disruption. Hemihydranencephaly is an extremely rare condition in which the vascular anomaly is unilateral. We report on a patient who was suspected to have hydrocephalus in utero; a brain magnetic resonance imaging scan showed left-sided hydranencephaly with preservation of basal ganglia. The patient developed signs of right hemiparesis but notably has only mild language delay. The available literature on hemihydranencephaly is reviewed. ( info)

5/67. Congenital hydranencephalic-hydrocephalic syndrome with proliferative vasculopathy: a possible relation with mitochondrial dysfunction.

    We report the case of a fetus aborted at gestation week 20 because of hydranencephalic-hydrocephalic syndrome. The fetus was the third pregnancy of a nonconsanguineous couple whose first child exhibited congenital hydranencephalic-hydrocephalic syndrome associated with muscle histology findings consistent with mitochondrial cytopathy and deficiency of complexes III and IV of the respiratory chain and whose second pregnancy had terminated in an elective abortion on detection of progressive hydrocephalus at gestation week 19. The third pregnancy had a normal course according to obstetric and ultrasonography examinations performed at gestation weeks 5, 10, and 15, and negative results were obtained in standard serologic and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests for prenatal infections of the mother. However, the ultrasonography examination at gestation week 18 revealed hydrocephalus, in response to which the parents requested an abortion, which was performed at gestation week 20; the fetus was male and with no evident external malformations. Histopathologic studies of the brain and medulla oblongata revealed proliferative vasculopathy (glomeruloid vessels, intracytoplasmic inclusions, and microcalcifications) and intracytoplasmic inclusions in the voluntary muscle. Microbiologic and PCR tests of hepatic and spleen tissue were negative for prenatal infections. In view of the precedent of a sister with mitochondrial dysfunction, these findings raise the pos sibility that at least some cases of familial syndrome of congenital hydranencephalic-hydrocephalic syndrome with proliferative vasculopathy can be attributed to alterations in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. ( info)

6/67. hydranencephaly in an infant with vascular malformations.

    hydranencephaly is a condition in which cerebral hemispheres are absent and reduced to fluid-filled sacs in a normal skull. Numerous causes have been proposed. We report a male infant with hydranencephaly and congenital vascular malformations (port wine stains, generalized nevus flammeus, anomalous retinal vessels, and absent internal carotid flow). magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed absence of most of the cerebrum except for small portions of the occipital cortex and thalami. magnetic resonance angiography showed flow within the vertebral and basilar arteries without internal carotid intracranial flow above the internal carotid petrous and cavernous portion. This is a report of cutaneous and retinal malformations associated with hydranencephaly. vascular malformations of larger vessels (e.g., webbing of the carotid arteries and an absent internal carotid arterial system) have been observed in other infants with hydranencephaly, and are proposed to lead to brain destruction. The case reported herein supports the role of primary vascular malformations in the development of some cases of hydranencephaly. ( info)

7/67. Auditory behaviors and auditory brainstem responses of infants with hypogenesis of cerebral hemispheres.

    Three infants with an almost complete absence of the cerebral hemispheres as a result of brain anomalies were studied both audiologically and neurologically. The brain anomalies were diagnosed by means of MRI and CT scans. Behavioral audiometry revealed reactions only to loud sound stimulations but auditory brainstem responses showed wave configurations and thresholds compatible with the ages of the infants. There were significant differences in the thresholds obtained by behavioral audiometry and auditory brainstem responses. It can be considered that these auditorily stimulated behavioral responses are evoked by auditory motor reflexes originating in the brainstem, but not by auditory perception. ( info)

8/67. First-trimester features of Fowler syndrome (hydrocephaly-hydranencephaly proliferative vasculopathy).

    We describe the features of Fowler syndrome (proliferative vasculopathy and hydrocephaly-hydranencephaly) diagnosed in the first trimester. The pregnancy with no significant family history was referred for karyotyping and ultrasound examination after a cystic hygroma was seen at 12 weeks. At 13 weeks, ultrasound examination revealed hydrocephaly-hydranencephaly, fetal akinesia, and arthrogryposis associated with increased nuchal translucency. The parents opted for termination of pregnancy and the diagnosis of Fowler syndrome was confirmed by pathological examination of the fetus. Calcified necrotic lesions and proliferative vasculopathy were observed in the entire central nervous system including the brainstem and spinal cord. Cases previously reported in siblings suggest an autosomal recessive transmission but specific genetic antenatal diagnosis is not yet available. The diagnosis of proliferative vasculopathy and hydrocephaly-hydranencephaly (Fowler syndrome) should be considered whenever hydrocephaly-hydranencephaly associated with a fetal akinetic sequence are encountered at the end of the first trimester. genetic counseling is recommended. ( info)

9/67. hydranencephaly owing to twin-twin transfusion: serial fetal ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging findings.

    We report a newborn girl with hydranencephaly. In the setting of a monochorionic twin pregnancy, one twin's demise was detected by ultrasonography at 18 weeks of gestation, apparently the result of a twin-twin transfusion. In the surviving twin, the evolution of ventriculomegaly, first noted at 18 weeks, to hydranencephaly at 27 weeks is documented by serial sonograms. These findings were confirmed with fetal and postnatal magnetic resonance imaging. ( info)

10/67. Hypoplastic thumbs and hydranencephaly: a new syndrome?

    We report a fetus with hypoplastic thumbs and hydranencephaly. The features did not fit well into any syndrome described in the london dysmorphology database, and we suspect this may represent a previously undescribed syndrome, although a diagnosis of XK-aprosencephaly syndrome remains possible. ( info)
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