Cases reported "hyperemia"

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1/109. Acute hemorrhagic encephalitis (Hurst disease) associated with neuroaxonal dystrophy.

    Two cases that fulfil the clinical and neuropathological criteria of acute hemorrhagic encephalitis are described. Histological examination revealed additionally focal changes in the white matter characteristic for neuroaxonal dystrophy. The differences in the clinical course and morphological picture observed in both cases are discussed. ( info)

2/109. 99mTc-bicisate and 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT imaging in early spontaneous reperfusion of cerebral embolism.

    Two patients with a cerebral embolism were evaluated by using both 99mTc-ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD, or Bicisate) and 99mTc-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In one patient, 99mTc-ECD SPECT images revealed hypoactivity in a reflow hyperemic area where an infarct was seen later on CT scans. In another patient, a reperfused area showed hyperactivity on 99mTc-ECD SPECT without any abnormality on follow-up CT. 99mTc-ECD represents a potential agent with which to evaluate cerebral tissue viability in early reperfusion after ischemia. ( info)

3/109. carbamazepine-induced thrombocytopenia defined by a challenge test.

    carbamazepine (CBZ), a widely used anticonvulsant, occasionally causes serious hematologic disorders. A 12-year-old boy was admitted because of a diffuse petechial rash and profound thrombocytopenia (10 x 10(9) platelets/l), after having been treated for epilepsy with CBZ for 12 days. Seven days following withdrawal of CBZ and initiation of prednisolone therapy, the platelet count recovered. In a subsequent challenge test with CBZ, platelet counts again decreased, and the levels of platelet-associated IgG and serum interleukin-6 increased. No antibodies against platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa or Ib were detected in plasma. We believe that this is the first reported occasion when CBZ-induced thrombocytopenia has been defined by a rechallenge test. ( info)

4/109. Neurotrophic corneal endothelial failure complicating acute horner syndrome.

    PURPOSE: The authors report the clinical findings of a unique case of rapid corneal endothelial decompensation in association with acute horner syndrome. STUDY DESIGN: Case report and literature review. methods: The authors followed a 38-year-old woman who developed horner syndrome after right jugular vein catheterization during cardiac valvular surgery. Shortly after the operation, horner syndrome accompanied by conjunctival hyperemia and stromal corneal edema developed in the right eye. Over the course of 4 months, the eye became painful, the corneal endothelial cell count dropped precipitously, and the stromal edema worsened, causing a difference of 100 microm in central corneal thickness compared to the unaffected eye. Deep stromal vascularization started at the limbus, resembling interstitial keratitis. RESULTS: A 3-week course of topical steroid treatment resulted in a dramatic improvement in the stromal corneal edema and regression of the deep stromal vascularization. Ocular and right hemicranial pain subsided shortly thereafter. CONCLUSION: The authors hypothesize that corneal endothelial failure in this unique case may have resulted from traumatic sympathectomy. According to experimental evidence in the reviewed ophthalmologic literature, sympathetic innervation may have a neurotrophic role in the cornea. Corneal pathology similar to the authors' case has been described in hemifacial atrophy (Parry-Robson syndrome), a disorder that is assumed to result from sympathetic denervation and that can be produced in animals by cervical sympathectomy. The authors therefore hypothesize that sympathetic denervation of the cornea may rarely cause endothelial decompensation and corneal edema. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of corneal endothelial failure in horner syndrome. ( info)

5/109. Permissible arterial occlusion time in aneurysm surgery: postoperative hyperperfusion caused by temporary clipping.

    The relationship between hyperperfusion and temporary clipping was evaluated to determine the safe limit for the duration of temporary clipping in aneurysm surgery. Twenty-one patients surgically treated for a ruptured aneurysm were examined using xenon-enhanced computed tomography on postoperative days 4 to 13. Eight of the 16 patients undergoing temporary clipping had focal hyperperfusion; whereas the five patients without temporary clipping had no hyperperfusion. Mean total temporary clipping time in patients with hyperperfusion was significantly longer than that in patients without (31.9 vs. 13.9 minutes, p = 0.0157) and mean maximum single temporary clipping time in patients with hyperperfusion was also significantly longer than in patients without (18.4 vs. 8.6 minutes, p = 0.0313). Moreover, cerebral infarction was related to hyperperfusion (p = 0.0027). These results support the hypothesis that temporary clipping during aneurysm surgery causes postoperative hyperperfusion and cerebral infarction. Temporary clipping may be harmful when performed for more than 20 minutes of total duration, since postoperative hyperperfusion was seen under this condition. ( info)

6/109. brain infarcts due to scorpion stings in children: MRI.

    We report two children with severe neurological complications after having been stung by a scorpion. Clinical and MRI findings suggested brain infarcts. The lesions seen were in pons in one child and the right hemisphere in the other. The latter also showed possible hyperemia in the infarcted area. No vascular occlusions were observed and we therefore think the brain infarcts were a consequence of the scorpion sting. The cause of the infarct may be hypotension, shock or depressed left ventricular function, all of which are frequent in severe poisoning by scorpion sting. ( info)

7/109. A case of arrhythmia-induced transient cerebral hyperaemia.

    Transient cerebral hyperaemia following an arrhythmia has not been previously demonstrated in humans. We report the effects of head-up tilt on a 78-year-old man with neurocardiogenic syncope. During tilt, an asymptomatic arrhythmia caused arterial blood pressure and transcranial Doppler-recorded cerebral blood flow velocity to fall markedly. Upon spontaneous resumption of sinus rhythm, cerebral blood flow velocity increased to values greater than those prior to the arrhythmia. This occurred prior to a full recovery of arterial blood pressure, indicating spontaneous transisent hyperaemia. Pressure-flow velocity graphs support current methods of measuring critical closing pressure and demonstrate a rise in critical closing and a fall in resistance-area product after the arrhythmia. ( info)

8/109. hyperemia of the intraperitoneal organs associated with scald burn.

    A 65-year-old man with a history of cerebral infarction sustained scald burns over 54% of the body surface. In spite of adequate fluid therapy, respiratory management with an artificial ventilator, and continuous hemodiafiltration, the patient died on day 5 post-admission. autopsy revealed necrotic change on the surface of the liver, and necrosis and perforation of the ileum. Histologic examination showed necrosis of the hepatocytes lining the surface and necrosis of the hepatocytes and congestion in the central area of the liver. We speculated that systemic responses to the extensive burn resulted in hyperemia of the intraperitoneal organs, thereby inducing acute liver failure and the subsequent development of multiple organ failure. ( info)

9/109. Occlusive hyperemia: a radiosurgical phenomenon?

    OBJECTIVE: Causes of neurological deficits after arteriovenous malformation (AVM) radiosurgery, including hemorrhage, radiation injury, and delayed cyst formation, are described. CONCEPT: Occlusive hyperemia has been described as a reason for neurological deterioration after AVM resection. thrombosis of draining veins or dural sinuses is thought to cause postoperative bleeding or neurological deficits secondary to venous hypertension. In a similar manner, local hemodynamic changes can occur in the brain adjacent to an AVM after radiosurgery if venous outflow is obstructed. Two patients are presented whose cases demonstrate this phenomenon. CONCLUSION: patients can experience clinical worsening after AVM radiosurgery from premature thrombosis of draining veins. Local hemodynamic changes could explain why imaging changes thought to be radiation related occur more frequently after radiosurgery of AVMs than of tumors. ( info)

10/109. Endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes mellitus subjects with peripheral artery disease.

    We strived to characterize the endothelial function status in type 2 diabetic patients with peripheral artery disease which was detected by ankle-brachial index by utilizing high frequency ultrasounds. Predictors of endothelial dysfunction were investigated. We chose 23 type 2 diabetic patients had ankle-brachial index <0.97 (0.15-0.95; mean=0.74 /-0.20), 31 diabetic patients had ankle-brachial index >/=1.0 and 28 non-diabetic subjects for study. Older age, a longer duration of diabetes, higher systolic blood pressure, higher prevalence of history of hypertension were observed in patients with peripheral vascular disease. Type 2 diabetic patients showed impaired flow-mediated dilatation than non-diabetic and it showed more impaired in patients with peripheral vascular disease. Nitroglyerin-induced dilatation showed a trend of impairment in patients with peripheral vascular disease but did not reach statistical significance. Age (r=-0.259, P=0.019), baseline brachial artery diameter (r=-0.321, P=0.003), ankle-brachial index (r=0.259, P=0.002) and hypertension history (P=0.01) were significantly associated with flow-mediated dilatation. However, after adjusting for age, only baseline diameter and ankle-brachial index were independent predictors of flow-mediated dilatation. In conclusion, we demonstrated flow-mediated dilatation was impaired in type 2 diabetic patients and it was further impaired in patients with peripheral vascular disease. nitroglycerin-induced dilatation showed a trend of impairment but did not reach statistical significance. ( info)
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