Cases reported "hypergammaglobulinemia"

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1/550. Myocardial infarction in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus with normal findings from coronary arteriography and without coronary vasculitis--case reports.

    The authors present the cases of two young patients, a man and a woman, who presented with myocardial infarction, in the absence of ischemic heart disease or stenosis of the coronary arteries. The woman was known to have systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) for the past 3 years (the immunoglobulin m [IgM] anticardiolipins antibodies were positive), without a history of coronary risk factors. Suddenly she presented with acute chest pain on rest that lasted 4 hours and culminated in anterior wall myocardial infarction. She was admitted to the coronary care unit, where no thrombolysis was given. She did not have echocardiographic evidence of Libman-Sacks endocarditis, but myocardial infarction was evident at the electrocardiogram (ECG). The young man had SLE (the IgM anticardiolipins were absent, but he was positive for lupus anticoagulant antibodies), he was hyperlipidemic, was a moderate smoker and moderately obese, and had no history of ischemic heart disease. He suddenly presented with an acute myocardial infarction documented by ECG, enzymes, and gammagraphy. In both patients, coronary angiography findings were normal and myocardial biopsy did not show evidence of arteritis. The relevance of these cases is the rare association of ischemic heart disease in SLE, with normal coronary arteries and without evidence of arteritis or verrucous endocarditis. ( info)

2/550. A man with a swollen leg and abnormal globulins.

    A 72-year-old man presented with a two-week history of exertional dyspnea and nonclaudicatory pain and swelling in the right lower leg. Elevating the leg for short periods had not helped. The symptoms had begun soon after he took a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug for right shoulder pain but persisted after he stopped taking the drug. His history included two-pillow orthopnea, but that had not worsened in the last year. He had not experienced chest discomfort. ( info)

3/550. Analysis of corneal crystalline deposits in multiple myeloma.

    A 46-year old woman and a 59-year-old man had corneal crystals, multiple myeloma, and IgG kappa hypergammaglobulinemia. In one case, crystalline deposits were also present in the lens. In both patients there was a marked decrease in the amount of crystals during chemotherapy. The crystals within the cornea of one case were identified by light and electron microscopy in material obtained during a lamellar keratoplasty. The crystalline deposits were located only in the corneal epithelium, and their regular repeating internal arrangement was confirmed by monochromatic optical diffraction of electron micrographs of sections through them. By immunofluorescent and immunoperoxidase techniques, the crystals reacted positively for immunoglobulin and particularly IgG kappa chains. ( info)

4/550. Enteroviral meningoencephalitis as a complication of X-linked hyper IgM syndrome.

    We describe 5 children from 2 families with mutations in the cd40 ligand (CD40L) gene leading to absent expression of CD40L on activated CD4 cells. All subjects presented with interstitial pneumonia with low serum IgG and normal serum IgM. One child had normal and one child had elevated serum IgA. Four had confirmed pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. In spite of intravenous immunoglobulin treatment yielding therapeutic serum immunoglobulin levels, 3 children had enteroviral encephalitis. When assessed by flow cytometry, the 3 surviving affected male children had absent CD40L expression on activated CD4( ) T cells. The affected children from both families were shown to have the same single nucleotide insertion (codon 131) resulting in frameshift and early termination within exon 4 (extracellular domain). This observation demonstrates that persistent enteroviral infection is not only observed in X-linked agammaglobulinemia but may also occur in patients with X-linked hyper IgM syndrome. ( info)

5/550. Crescentic glomerulonephritis in hyper IgD syndrome.

    The hyperimmunoglobulinemia D syndrome (HIDS) is a well-defined entity resembling familial mediterranean fever. HIDS is a systemic inflammatory disease associated with stimulation of T-cell-mediated immunity. These patients are at low risk for amyloidosis and are not known to develop nephropathy. We report a boy of Mediterranean ancestry who exhibited typical HIDS and end-stage renal failure. kidney biopsy revealed pauci-immune crescentic glomerulonephritis (cGN). We hypothesized that the glomerular involvement was secondary to the cytokine network activation observed in HIDS. Thus, cGN should be considered as part of the syndrome, and kidney biopsy should be performed early in the course of the renal disease in patients with HIDS. ( info)

6/550. Immunological reconstitution by allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in a child with the X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome.

    A successful transplantation of sibling marrow in a patient with the X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome is reported. Engraftment of HLA-identical marrow cells was obtained, although complicated by grade I acute graft-versus-host disease. Expression of the cd40 ligand (CD40L, CD154) by activated T-cells from the recipient remained at low levels until 10 months after the transplantation, but then normalized. The patient is now fully competent in immune function without any episodes of severe infection 24 months later. CONCLUSION: Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation is a reasonable therapeutic option for X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome if HLA-matched family donors are available. Whether dysregulation of CD40L expression causes post-transplant immunological abnormalities remains to be clarified. ( info)

7/550. Posterior corneal crystalline deposits in benign monoclonal gammopathy: a clinicopathologic case report.

    A 74-year-old woman had bilateral, deep stromal, patchy crystalline corneal deposits with the greatest density in the midperiphery. visual acuity was 6/120 in the right eye and finger counting at 1 m in the left eye. Histological examination of the corneal button showed large, irregular amorphous masses in the posterior stroma. The deposits stained red with Masson's trichrome and were positive for protein with the Danielli stain. Stains for amyloid, copper, and lipid were negative. The immunoperoxidase stain was positive for polyvalent IgG and kappa light chains. Transmission electron microscopy disclosed electron-dense deposits with linear and honeycomb profiles. Laboratory investigations disclosed elevated serum and urinary IgG kappa light chain (bence jones protein) levels. Urinary amino acids were normal. The serum copper level was elevated. Antinuclear antibody was positive at a titer of 1:80. A bone marrow aspirate was normal, as were roentgenograms of the skull. ( info)

8/550. An aggressive form of polyarticular arthritis in a man with CD154 mutation (X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome).

    Hyper-IgM syndrome (HIM) is a rare immunodeficiency disorder that has been associated with the development of symptoms and clinical features characteristic of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We describe a patient with HIM and severe erosive arthritis with prominent nodules in the absence of detectable serum rheumatoid factor. Because HIM results from defects in either T cell CD154 (cd40 ligand) expression or abnormal CD40 signaling, the molecular basis of the patient's disease was analyzed. Activated CD4 T cells failed to express surface CD154 protein, and molecular analysis of CD154 complementary dna revealed a nucleotide transversion resulting in the nonconservative amino acid substitution G-D at amino acid 257. This case indicates that defective CD154-dependent CD40 signaling can be associated with susceptibility to a severe inflammatory arthritis that has both similarities to and differences from idiopathic RA. ( info)

9/550. Successful bone marrow transplantation in a child with X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome.

    We report a case of an 11-year-old boy who underwent successful bone marrow transplantation for X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome (XHIM). The donor was an HLA-matched brother. The patient was conditioned with busulfan, cyclophosphamide and anti-thymocyte globulin. He received 4.7 x 10(8) marrow cells per kg from the donor. Prophylaxis against graft-versus-host disease consisted of cyclosporine and short-term methotrexate. The clinical course after the bone marrow transplantation was uneventful, and 12 months after transplantation the patient was doing well with no need for therapy. We examined expression of the cd40 ligand (CD40L) on the patient's activated T lymphocytes and in vitro production of immunoglobulins by his lymphocytes. Although expression of CD40L was totally absent before the bone marrow transplant, subnormal expression appeared after the transplantation. in vitro production of IgG and IgA also was improved by the transplant. Based on our experience bone marrow transplantation appears to be a reasonable therapeutic option for patients with XHIM if HLA-matched family donors are available. ( info)

10/550. Primary sjogren's syndrome in children and adolescents: proposal for diagnostic criteria.

    OBJECTIVE: Primary sjogren's syndrome (pSS) in childhood is a rare disease. Diagnostic criteria are available for adult patients only. In order to establish diagnostic criteria for juvenile pSS an analysis of 7 girls and one boy suffering from pSS with early onset is reported. Due to the rarity of the disease, data on patients with pSS reported in the literature are included in the proposal for modified diagnostic criteria. methods: The diagnosis of pSS was established according to the criteria for adulthood pSS, duly modified, which include clinical symptoms and laboratory immunological evaluation. RESULTS: The average age of our patients at clinical onset was 13.5 years (range: 10-17 yrs.). Clinical signs included systemic (fever, fatigue) as well as local (parotitis, vulvovaginitis, conjunctivitis) symptoms. paralysis due to hypokalemia linked to renal tubular acidosis and central nervous system (CNS) involvement was seen in one patient. Asymptomatic renal tubular acidosis was diagnosed in another 2 patients. Autoimmune hepatitis was present in 2 patients. All patients had laboratory abnormalities: hyperimmunoglobulinemia IgG, high titers of antinuclear antibodies (anti-SS-A and/or anti-SS-B) and elevated serum amylases. Sicca syndrome was never seen during childhood, although it developed later in 3 patients, after 7 to 10 years of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: It has been stressed that the classical diagnostic criteria for adult sjogren's syndrome, especially sicca syndrome, are not applicable to a pediatric onset of the disease. On the other hand, the presence of typical laboratory abnormalities can allow the diagnosis of these patients in the early stages. Both laboratory and clinical symptoms typical for childhood are included in our proposal for diagnostic criteria applicable to juvenile pSS. life-threatening conditions such as hypokalemic paralysis, CNS involvement and hepatitis may also occur in children. Sicca syndrome tends to develop much later in pediatric patients. ( info)
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