Cases reported "hypertrophy"

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1/1102. Virus-cell interaction in oligodendroglia, astroglia and phagocyte in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. An electron microscopic study.

    A 46-year-old female, with an 11 year history of malignant lymphoreticular disease, developed a neurological illness clinically manifested by a focal mass lesion in the left frontal lobe. In biopsied tissue, immunofluorescence study revealed the presence of JC antigen in the glial cells. Histologically, the lesion was characteristic of PML consisting of PML consisting of focal necrosis in the subcortical white matter, numerous fat laden macrophages and marked hypertrophy of oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. By electron microscopy, hypertrophic astrocytes contained intranuclear viral particles consistent with papova virions and aggregates of intracytoplasmic viral particles consisting of a single to several virions tightly surrounded by a single membrane. The membrane appeared to have been derived from that of the cellular vesicles. Fusion of the virus-associated membrane to the astroglial plasmalemma occurred when the virions appeared to shift towards extracellular space. The virioncontaining astrocytes showed cytoplasmic "fibrillar hypertrophy" similar to the characteristic gigantic astroglias of PML. This fact would provide an additional evidence that these gigantic cells, although lacking identifiable viral structures, were the result of anaplastic transformation by jc virus. Many virus-bearing astroglias were noted to be in the early stage of cellular necrosis, of "edematous degeneration". This further indicates that the jc virus is capable of inducing both lytic and abortive astroglial infections. Many oligodendroglias were hypertrophic due to the presence of intranuclear viral particles and markedly increased numbers of microtubules and free ribosomes in the cytoplasm. Membrane-bound intracytoplasmic viral particles were also noted in the oligodendroglias. Some fat laden macrophages contained large intracytoplasmic viral bodies, presumably originating from phagocytized virus-bearing cells. ( info)

2/1102. Functional intestinal obstruction due to deficiency of argyrophil neurones in the myenteric plexus. Familial syndrome presenting with short small bowel, malrotation, and pyloric hypertrophy.

    In 3 infants functional intestinal obstruction, associated with a short small intestine, malrotation, and pyloric hypertrophy, was shown to be due to failure of development of the argyrophil myenteric plexus, with the absence of ongoing peristalsis. 4 infants with similar clinical features have been described previously, and there is evidence for an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance of this syndrome. ( info)

3/1102. magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of asymmetrical bilateral masseteric hypertrophy.

    Asymmetrical bilateral masseteric hypertrophy or unilateral masseteric hypertrophy may present a diagnostic dilemma. While the history and clinical examination are important in differentiating this benign condition from parotid and dental pathology, they cannot necessarily exclude rarer malignant lesions of or within the muscle itself. We present a case where MRI provided clear and elegant confirmation of our provisional clinical diagnosis by illustrating both the soft tissue features and the logical corresponding bony features of this condition, thus obviating the need for further invasive investigations. ( info)

4/1102. hand-assisted laparoscopy for complex hysterectomy.

    In rare cases of extreme uterine enlargement, hysterectomy by vaginal and laparoscopic-assisted techniques is not feasible and requires a large abdominal incision. hand-assisted laparoscopy permits the performance of such cases through a much smaller, glove-size abdominal incision while preserving pneumoperitoneum. In a 45-year-old nullipara with a grossly enlarged, impacted uterus and total vaginal obliteration, hysterectomy was safely performed by hand-assisted laparoscopy using the Pneumo Sleeve system through a 7. 5-cm transverse suprapubic incision, and a 1-cm laparoscopic incision. The operation lasted 150 minutes, blood loss was 220 ml, and the specimen weighed 3050 g. The patient was discharged in excellent condition on the second postoperative day and had an uneventful recovery. (J Am Assoc Gynecol Laparosc 6(2):183-188, 1999) ( info)

5/1102. Hypertrophic discoid lupus erythematosus of the conjunctiva.

    PURPOSE: To report the ophthalmic manifestations of hypertrophic discoid lupus erythematosus of the conjunctiva. METHOD: Case report and review of biopsy results. RESULTS: A 58-year-old woman with a history of chronic blepharoconjunctivitis presented with an unusual raised conjunctival lesion. Previous biopsy slides were reviewed and interpreted as diagnostic of discoid lupus erythematosus, hypertrophic or verrucous type. Both blepharoconjunctivitis and the raised conjunctival lesion resolved with hydroxychloroquine therapy. CONCLUSIONS: A raised conjunctival mass in the context of refractory blepharoconjunctivitis should elicit suspicion for discoid lupus erythematosus. The hypertrophic variant of this disease can affect the conjunctiva. ( info)

6/1102. Prominent medial hypertrophy of renal arterioles in an infant with hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism.

    We describe an 11-month-old boy who presented clinically with hyperkalemic renal tubular acidosis due to hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism. Persistent hyperchloremic acidosis and mild azotemia were present. All abnormal laboratory values were corrected by the administration of fludrocortisone. Renal biopsy showed prominent medial hypertrophy of renal arterioles and interstitial fibrosis, which closely resemble those of the gene-targeted mice with disruption of the renin angiotensin system. This is the first case report raising the possibility that a defective renin angiotensin system in infancy may lead to tubulointerstitial damage with medial hypertrophy of intrarenal arterioles. ( info)

7/1102. Macromastia in a newborn with alagille syndrome.

    We present a case of macromastia in a newborn with alagille syndrome. A review of the literature failed to find any prior reports of this findings in alagille syndrome patients. We propose that this patient's macromastia may be related to her liver failure and abnormal estrogen metabolism. ( info)

8/1102. hypertrophy and pseudohypertrophy of the lower leg following chronic radiculopathy and neuropathy: imaging findings in two patients.

    Enlargement of the ipsilateral muscle compartment is an exceptional finding in patients with chronic radiculopathy, peripheral nerve injury, anterior horn cell diseases, or acquired peripheral neuropathy. We report radiographic, ultrasonographic, CT and MRI findings in a patient with chronic S1 radiculopathy and another with chronic neuropathy of the common fibular nerve (L4-S2), both presenting with painless enlargement of the calf muscles. ( info)

9/1102. Moebius syndrome: the new finding of hypertrophy of the coronoid process.

    The first detailed description of congenital facial paralysis was reported by Moebius in 1888. It is characterized by either unilateral or bilateral paralysis of the facial muscles and an associated abducens palsy. The present report is of two patients with Moebius syndrome, who were also diagnosed with trismus at birth. Each patient also demonstrated bilateral hypertrophy of the coronoid process of the mandible. In effect, the zygoma obstructed the excursion of the mandible because of a "coronoid block." A three-dimensional computed tomography scan demonstrated normal temporomandibular joints but bilateral hypertrophy of the coronoid processes and micrognathia. Both patients demonstrated less than 10 mm of oral excursion. Bilateral coronoidectomies were performed through an intraoral approach. The oral excursions after surgery increased to at least 20 mm. In each of these patients, the coronoid process was enlarged relative to the zygoma, which was of normal size and configuration. The trismus was associated with blocking of the coronoid by the anterior zygoma, preventing open or full excursion of the hypoplastic mandibles. Moebius syndrome can have a variable presentation at birth. In two patients, the authors describe a new finding of hypertrophy of the coronoid process and trismus secondary to obstruction of the coronoid by the hypertrophic zygomas during oral excursions. Each patient is described, and a review of the literature is discussed. ( info)

10/1102. Squamous cell carcinoma and lipomatous pseudohypertrophy of the pancreas.

    A 68-year-old woman who had been treated for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus for the past 20 years was admitted to hospital because of abdominal pain and weight loss. Radiological investigation revealed a tumour in the body of the pancreas and numerous intraductal calcifications in both the tail and the head of the pancreas. Left-sided pancreatectomy was performed to remove the tumour. The resection specimen showed fatty enlargement of the parenchyma and numerous intraductal calcifications in the tissue adjacent to the tumour, which was 7 cm in diameter and was found to be a primary squamous cell carcinoma with a spindle cell component. There was also lipomatous pseudohypertrophy. ( info)
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