Cases reported "hyponatremia"

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1/769. Extrapontine myelinolysis in a nine-year-old child.

    Extrapontine myelinolysis in the pediatric age group is very rare. We report a nine-year-old girl with the classical clinical syndrome of pontine and extrapontine myelinolysis following liver trauma due to a traffic accident. She was referred to our hospital for further investigation of convulsions due to severe postoperative hyponatremia. She had no hypoxic event or other identifiable cause for the neurological symptoms. Neurological deterioration began about two days after correction of hyponatremia and followed a period of temporary improvement in hyponatremic encephalopathy. diagnosis of extrapontine myelinolysis was confirmed with the identification of typical features on magnetic resonance imaging. The rapid correction of hyponatremia seemed the most likely cause since other biochemical tests including liver function tests were all within normal ranges. The long term clinical outcome was good. It is important to carefully monitor the rate of correction in electrolyte disturbances, and to consider the individual variation in response to therapy. ( info)

2/769. adrenal insufficiency in smith-lemli-opitz syndrome.

    We describe three unrelated patients with adrenal insufficiency and RSH or smith-lemli-opitz syndrome (SLOS), a disorder due to deficient synthesis of cholesterol. These patients presented with hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, and decreased aldosterone-to-renin ratio, which is a sensitive measure of the renin-aldosterone axis. All patients had profound serum total cholesterol deficiency (14-31 mg/dl) and marked elevation of 7-dehydrocholesterol (10-45 mg/ dl). Two patients were newborn infants with 46, XY karyotypes and complete failure to masculinize; one of these patients also had cortisol deficiency. Both patients died within 10 days of birth of cardiopulmonary complications while on adrenal replacement therapy. The third patient diagnosed with SLOS at birth presented at age 7months with fever and diarrhea and was noted to have profound hyponatremia. This patient is maintaining normal serum electrolytes on mineralocorticoid replacement. We conclude that adrenal insufficiency may be a previously undetected and treatable manifestation in SLOS. We hypothesize that deficiency of cholesterol, an adrenal hormone precursor, may lead to insufficient synthesis of adrenal steroid hormones. ( info)

3/769. Osmotic demyelination syndrome with two-phase movement disorders: case report.

    Osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS) is characterized by regions of demyelination throughout the brain, which are most prominent in the pons. This demyelinating disease is associated with electrolyte disturbances and typically occurs in patients who are alcoholic or malnourished. movement disorders are not frequently recognized in patients with ODS. This report describes a 22-year-old woman with ODS after correction of profound hyponatremia. The main neurologic symptom was two-phase movement disorder. First, she had acute onset dystonia, then the movement disorder transformed to generalized rigidity and tremors in the delayed second phase. magnetic resonance imaging in the first phase revealed demyelinating lesions in the central pons, bilateral thalami and basal ganglia. In the second phase, the previous myelinolysis had been partially resolved. The clinical course of the two-phase movement disorder did not correlate with the resolving feature of neuroradiologic findings. During the second-phase movement disorder, the patient had a good response to propranolol and trihexyphenidyl. ( info)

4/769. Lessons to be learned: a case study approach diuretic therapy and a laxative causing electrolyte and water imbalance, loss of attention, a fall and subsequent fractures of the tibia and fibula in an elderly lady.

    The case is described of a hitherto well, alert and intelligent lady of 85 years of age, who commenced medication with diuretics--prescribed for mild congestive cardiac failure; she developed constipation consequent upon the diuresis and dehydration thereby provoked. As a result she began to take, unknown to her general practitioner, regular and increasing amounts of laxatives. At about this time she was noted by her son to become "rapidly senile"--with the result that she fell on account of losing her normally good concentration and attention; she sustained fractures of the right tibia and fibula. Shortly after admission to hospital she was premedicated, anaesthetised and operated upon, following which there was a postoperative regimen comprising several litres of low sodium isotonic infusions, all given intravenously. She was found at this point to be severely hyponatraemic with a low serum osmolality, but following the institution of water restriction rapidly improved as her serum sodium rose again; there was an accompanying massive diuresis as the previously retained water was voided. Concomitant with the serum sodium rise her mental concentration and attention regained their former levels. The biochemical and cellular mechanisms underlying this patient's symptoms are discussed. ( info)

5/769. death from hyponatremia as a result of acute water intoxication in an Army basic trainee.

    Several reports during the past 15 years have described hyponatremia as a result of excessive water intake by athletes during endurance races. The high rates of fluid consumption have been attributed to the desire of athletes to prevent heat injury. The military has adopted guidelines for programmed drinking to maintain performance and minimize the risk of heat casualties. As military personnel increase their fluid intake, their risk of hyponatremia as a result of water overload increases. A potentially life-threatening complication is acute water intoxication. We report the first known death of an Army basic trainee as a result of acute water intoxication. The misinterpretation of his symptoms as those of dehydration and heat injury led to continued efforts at oral hydration until catastrophic cerebral and pulmonary edema developed. ( info)

6/769. Drug-induced hyponatraemia in psychogenic polydipsia.

    Two patients with psychogenic polydipsia developed hyponatraemia, one in association with administration of hydrochlorothiazide and the other with that of tolbutamide. It is suggested that the increased fluid intake in such patients may make them more susceptible to the development of hyponatraemia from thiazide or sulphonylurea compounds. ( info)

7/769. beer drinker's hyponatraemia: a case report.

    beer drinker's hyponatraemia, also called beer potomania, is a syndrome of hyponatraemia in patients who consume excessive amounts of beer and have a poor dietary intake. We describe a patient with chronic asymptomatic hyponatraemia due to beer potomania. The pathophysiology of this syndrome, the treatment and prevention are reviewed. ( info)

8/769. Severe hyponatraemia in an amiloride/hydrochlorothiazide-treated patient.

    A 85-year-old woman treated with, among other drugs, a thiazide diuretic presented with a severe hyponatraemia. She met several of the criteria for SIADH and, besides drugs, no cause for SIADH was found. After stopping the thiazide diuretic and restricting fluid intake the patient recovered fully. It was later proved that the thiazide was the cause of the water intoxication by rechallenging the patient with a single dose of amiloride/hydrochlorothiazide 5/50 mg. This "thiazide provocation test" showed its usefulness in the differential diagnosis of suspected SIADH. Moreover, the test demonstrated the paradoxal effect of thiazide diuretics to cause water retention in susceptible patients. ( info)

9/769. Transient pseudo-hypoaldosteronism following resection of the ileum: normal level of lymphocytic aldosterone receptors outside the acute phase.

    Pseudo-hypoaldosteronism (PHA) is due to mineralocorticoid resistance and manifests as hyponatremia and hyperkalemia with increased plasma aldosterone levels. It may be familial or secondary to abnormal renal sodium handling. We report the case of a 54-year-old woman with multifocal cancer of the colon, who developed PHA after subtotal colectomy, ileal resection and jejunostomy. She was treated with 6 g of salt daily to prevent dehydration, which she stopped herself because of reduced fecal losses. One month later she was admitted with signs of acute adrenal failure, i.e. fatigue, severe nausea, blood pressure of 80/60 mmHg, extracellular dehydration, hyponatremia (118 mmol/l); hyperkalemia (7.6 mmol/l), increased blood urea nitrogen (BUN) (200 mg/dl) and creatininemia (2.5 mg/dl), and decreased plasma bicarbonates level (HCO3-: 16 mmol/l; N: 27-30). However, the plasma cortisol was high (66 microg/100 ml at 10:00 h; N: 8-15) and the ACTH was normal (13 pg/ml, N: 10-60); there was a marked increase in plasma renin activity (>37 ng/ml/h; N supine <3), active renin (869 pg/ml; N supine: 1.120), aldosterone (>2000 pg/ml; N supine <150) and plasma AVP (20 pmol/l; N: 0.5-2.5). The plasma ANH level was 38 pmol/l (N supine: 5-25). A urinary steroidogram resulted in highly elevated tetrahydrocortisol (THF: 13.3 mg/24h; N: 1.4 /-0.8) with no increase in tetrahydrocortisone (THE: 3.16 mg/24h; N: 2.7 /-2.0) excretion, and with low THE/THF (0.24; N: 1.87 /-0.36) and alpha THF/THF (0.35; N: 0.92 /-0.42) ratios. The number of mineralocorticoid receptors in mononuclear leukocytes was in the lower normal range for age, while the number of glucocorticoid receptors was reduced. Small-bowel resection in ileostomized patients causes excessive fecal sodium losses and results in chronic sodium depletion with contraction of the plasma volume and severe secondary hyperaldosteronism. Nevertheless, this hyperaldosteronism may be associated with hyponatremia and hyperkalemia suggesting PHA related to the major importance of the colon for the absorption of sodium. In conclusion, this case report emphasizes 1) the possibility of a syndrome of acquired PHA with severe hyperkalemia after resection of the ileum and colon responding to oral salt supplementation; 2) the major increase in AVP and the small increase in ANH; 3) the strong increase in urinary THF with low THE/THF and alpha THF/THF ratios; 4) the normal number of lymphocytic mineralocorticoid receptors outside the acute episode. ( info)

10/769. Dual facets of hyponatraemia and arginine vasopressin in patients with ACTH deficiency.

    OBJECTIVE: Hyponatraemia is often observed in patients with ACTH deficiency who are thought not to suffer from volume depletion. Their high plasma AVP levels relative to plasma osmolality are presumed to be maintained by non-osmotic mechanisms. We attempted to assess volume status from changes in selected clinical measurements related to body fluid balance in the course of i.v. fluid supplementation and following glucocorticoid (GC) replacement in ACTH-deficient patients, and to interpret plasma AVP levels in the context of the estimated volume status. patients AND DESIGN: This report consists of three parts. First, an ACTH-deficient patient with hyponatraemia and volume depletion who was followed through volume replacement to recovery after GC replacement is described (case report). Secondly, medical records of five ACTH-deficient patients with hypovolaemia and hyponatraemia were surveyed retrospectively to observe changes in serum levels of sodium, uric acid (UA) and haematocrit (Hct) following i.v. fluid supplementation of low sodium content (retrospective study). Thirdly, five ACTH-deficient patients with or without overt dehydration were studied with regard to body weight, blood pressure, serum sodium, total proteins, Hct and blood urea nitrogen before and after GC replacement (prospective study). Plasma AVP levels were measured after i.v. fluid supplementation without GC replacement in the patients of the retrospective study, and before and after GC replacement in the patients of the prospective study. RESULTS: The first patient became more hyponatraemic after i.v. fluid supplementation and recovered ultimately from hyponatraemia after GC replacement. In five patients studied retrospectively, the serum sodium levels fell progressively following i.v. fluid supplementation, concurrent with reduction in UA levels and Hct, which indicated the dilutional nature of the hyponatraemia. In the patients observed prospectively, the accumulation of fluid and sodium was indicated by a rise in body weight, blood pressure and serum sodium levels and a decline in Hct and total proteins after GC replacement. Plasma AVP levels rose similarly in patients with dilutional hyponatraemia and in patients with borderline hyponatraemia before GC replacement. CONCLUSION: patients with untreated ACTH deficiency may have either of two kinds of hyponatraemia--i.e. borderline hyponatraemia associated with subclinical hypovolaemia, or dilutional hyponatraemia. Similarity of plasma AVP levels in two hyponatraemic states suggests their AVP secretion is regulated by non-osmotic, non-volume mechanisms, possibly released from GC suppression at low plasma osmolality. ( info)
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