Cases reported "hyponatremia"

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11/769. Hyponatraemia: biochemical and clinical perspectives.

    Hyponatraemia is a common bio-chemical abnormality, occurring in about 15% of hospital inpatients. It is often associated with severe illness and relatively poor outcome. Pathophysiologically, hyponatraemia may be spurious, dilutional, depletional or redistributional. Particularly difficult causes and concepts of hyponatraemia are the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis and the sick cell syndrome, which are discussed here in detail. Therapy should always be targeted at the underlying disease process. 'Hyponatraemic symptoms' are of doubtful importance, and may be more related to water overload and/or the causative disease, than to hyponatraemia per se. Artificial elevation of plasma sodium by saline infusion carries the risk of induction of osmotic demyelination (central pontine myelinolysis). ( info)

12/769. syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone associated with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus.

    A 79-year-old woman suffering from urinary incontinence and unsteady gait was diagnosed as having idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) with hyponatremia due to the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). The concentration of antidiuretic hormone was high while the plasma osmolality was low in the presence of concentrated urine during the episodes of hyponatremia. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head showed enlargement of the third and lateral ventricles. After ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgery, the symptoms of NPH and hyponatremia improved. It may be possibly explained that mechanical pressure on the hypothalamus from the third ventricle is responsible for hyponatremia. ( info)

13/769. Hyponatraemic convulsion secondary to desmopressin treatment for primary enuresis.

    The case of a 6 year old child who presented with convulsions and coma after unsupervised self administration of intranasal desmopressin (DDAVP) for nocturnal enuresis is presented. Children with enuresis can be embarassed by their condition and may believe that multiple doses of their nasal spray may bring about a rapid resolution. water intoxication is an uncommon but serious adverse effect of treatment with intranasal DDAVP. These patients may present with seizure, mental state changes, or both. Basic management consists of stopping the drug, fluid restriction, and suppressive treatment for seizures. Recovery is usually rapid and complete. Administration of the nasal spray in children should be supervised by parents to prevent highly motivated children from accidental overdose. The risks of high fluid intake need to be carefully explained to both parents and children. ( info)

14/769. Fatal child abuse by forced water intoxication.

    BACKGROUND: Although water intoxication leading to brain damage is common in children, fatal child abuse by forced water intoxication is virtually unknown. methods: During the prosecution of the homicide of an abused child by forced water intoxication, we reviewed all similar cases in the united states where the perpetrators were found guilty of homicide. In 3 children punished by forced water intoxication who died, we evaluated: the types of child abuse, clinical presentation, electrolytes, blood gases, autopsy findings, and the fate of the perpetrators. FINDINGS: Three children were forced to drink copious amounts of water (over 6 L). All had seizures, emesis, and coma, presenting to hospitals with hypoxemia (PO2 = 44 /- 8 mm Hg) and hyponatremia (plasma Na = 112 /- 2 mmol/L). Although all showed evidence of extensive physical abuse, the history of forced water intoxication was not revealed to medical personnel, thus none of the 3 children were treated for their hyponatremia. All 3 patients died and at autopsy had cerebral edema and aspiration pneumonia. The perpetrators of all three deaths by forced water intoxication were eventually tried and convicted. INTERPRETATION: Forced water intoxication is a new generally fatal syndrome of child abuse that occurs in children previously subjected to other types of physical abuse. Patients present with coma, hyponatraemia, and hypoxemia of unknown etiology. If health providers were made aware of the association, the hyponatremia is potentially treatable. ( info)

15/769. hyponatremia-associated rhabdomyolysis.

    BACKGROUND: hyponatremia is the most frequent electrolyte disorder. However, hyponatremia rarely results from excessive water intake, unless the kidney is unable to excrete free water, such as in patients on thiazide diuretics; in addition, hyponatremia is an uncommon cause of rhabdomyolysis. methods: We present a 51-year-old hypertensive woman on chronic hydrochlorothiazide therapy who developed acute water intoxication and severe myalgias. RESULTS: The patient developed acute hypotonic hyponatremia and subsequent rhabdomyolysis. We discuss the mechanisms responsible for the development of hyponatremia and its association with rhabdomyolysis. CONCLUSION: Muscle enzymes should be monitored in patients with acute hyponatremia who develop muscle pain, and hyponatremia-induced rhabdomyolysis must be considered in patients with myalgias receiving thiazide diuretics. ( info)

16/769. Hyponatraemia and seizures after ecstasy use.

    A patient presented to our unit with seizures and profound hyponatraemia after ingestion of a single tablet of ecstasy. The seizures proved resistant to therapy and ventilation on the intensive care unit was required. Resolution of the seizures occurred on correction of the metabolic abnormalities. The pathogenesis of seizures and hyponatraemia after ecstasy use is discussed. Ecstasy use should be considered in any young patient presenting with unexplained seizures and attention should be directed towards electrolyte levels, particularly sodium. ( info)

17/769. Severe hyponatremia caused by hypothalamic adrenal insufficiency.

    A 60-year-old woman was admitted with severe hyponatremia. Basal values of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), thyroid hormone and cortisol were normal on admission. Impairment of water diuresis was observed by water loading test. Initially, we diagnosed her condition as the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). By provocation test, we finally confirmed that the hyponatremia was caused by hypothalamic adrenal insufficiency. The basal values of ACTH and cortisol might not be sufficient to exclude the possibility of adrenal insufficiency. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate adrenal function by provocation test or to re-evaluate it after recovery from hyponatremia. ( info)

18/769. Therapeutic relowering of the serum sodium in a patient after excessive correction of hyponatremia.

    BACKGROUND: Inappropriate correction of chronic hyponatremia could lead to major neuropathological sequelae. In man, the risk of brain myelinolysis increases strikingly when correction of the serum sodium exceeds 10-15 mEq/l/24 h. No treatment is actually available for this iatrogenic brain injury. However, recent experimental data showed that rapid reinduction of the hyponatremia greatly reduces the incidence of brain damage and death in case of serum sodium overshooting. SUBJECTS AND methods: We tested this rescue manoeuver in a 71-year-old woman with nausea, confusion and severe (SNa 106 mEq/l) chronic hyponatremia related to thiazides. It was associated with hypokalemia (SK: 3.2 mEq/l). RESULTS: Treatment with isotonic saline produced inappropriately high SNa correction level of 21 mEq/l after the first 24 h. After initial improvement, the neurological status deteriorated after 72 h. Rapid reinduction of the hyponatremia was then ordered. Administration of hypotonic fluids (by oral and i.v. route) combined with dDAVP induced a prompt decline in the SNa (-16 mEq/l/14 h) with a final gradient of correction of deltaSNa 9 mEq/l. This manoeuver was well tolerated without untoward effects. The natremia then progressively normalized and the patient completely recovered without neurological sequelae. CONCLUSION: Hypotonic fluids may be safely administered to decrease the natremia after excessive correction of hyponatremia for potential prevention of myelinolysis. ( info)

19/769. Premenstrual attacks of acute intermittent porphyria: hormonal and metabolic aspects - a case report.

    We report the case of a 38-year-old woman with acute intermittent porphyria (AIP). Following the observation of an acute AIP attack in the patient's father, the diagnosis was established after genetic and biochemical examinations. At the age of 29, eight months after delivery of her first and only child, the patient was hospitalized due to a first proven attack of AIP. In the following years she suffered several premenstrual AIP attacks, with clinical symptoms ranging from abdominal pain to paralysis. One attack was accompanied by an increased urinary catecholamine output, strongly indicating adrenergic hyperactivity. The precipitation of acute episodes by secretion of gonadotrophins and a severe hyponatraemia due to a syndrome of inappropriate anti-diuretic hormone secretion indicated hypothalamic involvement in the pathogenesis of AIP. This patient has experienced an evolution of treatment regimens. At first, acute attacks were treated by i.v. hypertonic glucose. Afterwards propranolol was instituted as a maintenance therapy. Later on, i.v. injections of haem arginate were very successful in resolving acute AIP episodes. However, until therapy with an LHRH analogue was started, the patient continued to suffer premenstrual AIP attacks. These LHRH analogues cause hypothalamic inhibition of gonadotrophin secretion, with stabilization of endogenous ovarian steroid production at a low level, and therefore may be effective in preventing acute exacerbations of this disease. Since this patient went on a fixed regimen of an LHRH analogue combined with the lowest dose oestrogen patch her quality of life has improved substantially and she has not required hospitalization, now for over 3 years. ( info)

20/769. Unexpected transurethral resection of prostate syndrome complicated with acute myocardial infarction during transurethral incision procedure--a case report.

    Transurethral incision (TUI) is a simple and safe procedure. We, herein, present a case undergoing transurethral incision procedure during which he developed transurethral resection of prostate syndrome (TURP syndrome) and hypothermia precipitating an acute perioperative myocardial infarction attack. The potential risk of development of TURP syndrome in settings other than TURP surgery as well as its prevention are reviewed and discussed. ( info)
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