Cases reported "Hypophosphatemia"

Filter by keywords:

Retrieving documents. Please wait...

1/131. rhabdomyolysis complicating unrecognized hypophosphatemia in an alcoholic patient.

    rhabdomyolysis occurring as a complication of hypophosphatemia has been infrequently described. A 58-year-old male with a history of daily alcohol consumption presented with two generalized tonic clonic seizures secondary to hypovolemic hyponatremia. He was volume-resuscitated, and antiepileptic medication was administered. After three days of hospitalization, the patient developed severe rhabdomyolysis despite the absence of further seizure activity. serum phosphate levels were depressed. He was treated with intravenous mannitol, alkaline diuresis, and intravenous and oral phosphate supplementation. He recovered uneventfully. hypophosphatemia can potentially lead to multisystem organ dysfunction including severe rhabdomyolysis. It is, therefore, important to maintain a low threshold for measuring serum phosphate levels in patients admitted to hospital. ( info)

2/131. Musculoskeletal manifestations of osteomalacia: report of 26 cases and literature review.

    OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to describe the musculoskeletal manifestations in a selected population of 26 patients with biopsy-proven osteomalacia (OM) and provide a literature update. methods: The 26 patients with biopsy-proven OM were selected from a total number of 79 patients who underwent anterior iliac crest biopsy. The diagnosis of OM was confirmed by the presence of an osteoid volume greater than 10%, osteoid width greater than 15 microm, and delayed mineralization assessed by double-tetracycline labeling. RESULTS: OM was caused by intestinal malabsorption in 13 patients, whereas six other patients presented with hypophosphatemia of different causes. Five elderly patients presented with hypovitaminosis D, and in two patients the OM was part of renal osteodystrophy. Twenty-three patients presented with bone pain and diffuse demineralization, whereas three other patients had normal or increased bone density. Characteristic pseudofractures were seen in only seven patients. Six of the 23 patients with diffuse demineralization had an "osteoporotic-like pattern" without pseudofractures. Prominent articular manifestations were seen in seven patients, including a rheumatoid arthritis-like picture in three, osteogenic synovitis in three, and ankylosing spondylitis-like in one. Two other patients were referred to us with the diagnosis of possible metastatic bone disease attributable to polyostotic areas of increased radio nuclide uptake caused by pseudofractures. Six patients also had proximal myopathy, two elderly patients were diagnosed as having polymalgia rheumatica, and two young patients were diagnosed as having fibromyalgia. One of the patients who presented with increased bone density was misdiagnosed as possible fluorosis. CONCLUSION: OM is usually neglected when compared with other metabolic bone diseases and may present with a variety of clinical and radiographic manifestations mimicking other musculoskeletal disorders. ( info)

3/131. hypokalemic periodic paralysis associated with hypophosphatemia in a patient with hyperinsulinemia.

    A 34-year-old man was admitted to the hospital because of acute quadriplegia. On admission, serum potassium was 2.1 mEq/L and serum inorganic phosphate was 1.4 mg/dL. Thyroid function was normal. serum levels of aldosterone, cortisol, and intact parathyroid hormone were normal. fasting plasma glucose was 109 mg/dL, and fasting serum insulin was 25.0 U/mL. Shortly after intravenous supplementation of potassium, muscle strength was normalized. Oral glucose tolerance test revealed impaired glucose tolerance and hyperresponse of insulin. During the oral glucose tolerance test, serum potassium and phosphate decreased significantly. These findings suggest that hyperinsulinemia and insulin-induced transmembrane shift of extracellular potassium and phosphate may have been involved in the abnormalities of serum electrolytes and development of hypokalemic periodic paralysis in the present patient. ( info)

4/131. PHEX expression in parathyroid gland and parathyroid hormone dysregulation in X-linked hypophosphatemia.

    X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH), a renal phosphate (Pi) wasting disorder with defective bone mineralization, is caused by mutations in the PHEX gene (a Pi-regulating gene with homology to endopeptidases on the x chromosome). parathyroid hormone (PTH) status in XLH has been controversial, with the prevailing belief that hyperparathyroidism develops in response to Pi therapy. We report a 5-year-old girl with XLH (patient 1) who had significant hyperparathyroidism at presentation, prior to initiation of therapy. We examined her response to a single oral Pi dose, in combination with calcitriol, and demonstrated a rise in serum concentration of intact PTH, which peaked at 4 h and paralleled the rise in serum Pi concentration. We also present two other patients whose parathyroid glands were analyzed for PHEX mRNA expression following parathyroidectomy. Patient 2 had autonomous hyperparathyroidism associated with chronic renal insufficiency, and patient 3, with XLH, developed autonomous hyperparathyroidism after 8 years of therapy with Pi and calcitriol. Following parathyroidectomy, patient 3 exhibited an increase in both serum Pi concentration and renal Pi reabsorption. The abundance of PHEX mRNA, relative to beta-actin mRNA, in parathyroid glands from patients 2 and 3 was several-fold greater than that in human fetal calvaria, as estimated by ribonuclease protection assay. In summary, we have shown that hyperparathyroidism can be a primary manifestation of XLH and that PHEX is abundantly expressed in the parathyroid gland. Given that PHEX has homology to endopeptidases, we propose that PHEX may have a role in the normal regulation of PTH. ( info)

5/131. Diagnostic utility of magnetic resonance imaging skeletal survey in a patient with oncogenic osteomalacia.

    Oncogenic osteomalacia is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome characterized by hypophosphatemic osteomalacia due to renal phosphate wasting. The same biochemical features are found in patients with X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets/osteomalacia and sporadic hypophosphatemic osteomalacia with unknown etiology. Oncogenic osteomalacia is cured by resection of the responsible tumor. In contrast, patients with other types of hypophosphatemic rickets/osteomalacia need long-term treatment with large doses of active vitamin D3. Therefore, detection of the responsible tumor for oncogenic osteomalacia has great clinical importance. However, there is no standard method for detecting the tumor for oncogenic osteomalacia, and the responsible tumor is often very difficult to be found. We describe a patient with adult-onset osteomalacia due to renal phosphate wasting. Although oncogenic osteomalacia was suspected, cranial, chest, and abdominal computed tomography scanning, urological and otolaryngological examinations, and detailed palpation for soft tissue mass failed to detect the responsible tumor. However, magnetic resonance imaging skeletal survey revealed a tumor in the right femoral bone. Resection of the tumor resulted in normalization of serum phosphate and renal phosphate handling. Because the most frequent causes for oncogenic osteomalacia are tumors in bone or soft tissue, magnetic resonance imaging skeletal survey is a very powerful method for detecting the responsible tumor. Vigorous search for tumors with this method in patients with hypophosphatemic osteomalacia would be helpful not only for proper management of patients, but also for clarifying the identity of sporadic hypophosphatemic osteomalacia. ( info)

6/131. Postoperative hypocalcemic tetany caused by fleet phospho-soda preparation in a patient taking alendronate sodium: report of a case.

    This case report describes a patient who was previously prescribed alendronate (Fosamax) and presented with postoperative hypophosphatemia and hypocalcemic tetany after bowel preparation with Fleet Phospho-Soda. This report suggests that patients taking bone metabolism regulators may not be able to respond appropriately to hypocalcemic stressors. ( info)

7/131. Longterm treatment of psoriasis using fumaric acid preparations can be associated with severe proximal tubular damage.

    Fumaric acid preparations are used as longterm and effective treatment of psoriasis. Apart from gastrointestinal, dermatological and hematological side-effects, transient renal damage was observed during treatment with fumaric acid. The case of a 38 year old woman who was treated with fumaric acid (420 mg bid) for 5 years before she complained of fatigue and weakness. According to clinical laboratory she had developed severe proximal tubular damage. hypophosphatemia, glycosuria and proteinuria persisted although medication was stopped immediately. ( info)

8/131. CT and MRI in severe hypophosphataemia with central nervous system involvement.

    We report a 38-year-old woman with extreme hypophosphataemia in whom CT and MRI disclosed bilateral lesions within the basal ganglia, thalamus and occipital lobes. After adequate substitution of phosphate the lesions grossly resolved and the patient recovered. This case is the first to demonstrate that profound changes of serum phosphate may be associated with reversible brain lesions. ( info)

9/131. Severe hypophosphatemia. Pathophysiologic implications, clinical presentations, and treatment.

    We conducted this review to heighten the awareness and describe pathologic manifestations of hypophosphatemia. We present 3 cases of varied manifestations of hypophosphatemia where recognition was delayed. In certain settings, severe hypophosphatemia has significant morbidity and potential mortality. Appreciation of the pathophysiologic basis for organ dysfunction in severe hypophosphatemia should result in early recognition and treatment. We reviewed the English-language literature for reported cases and research studies dealing with pathophysiologic mechanisms subserving clinical manifestations. We observed that depletion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) would explain most of the derangement noted in cellular functions. Phosphate plays a key role in the delivery of oxygen to the tissue. Lack of phosphate, therefore, leads to tissue hypoxia and hence disruption of cellular function. Severe hypophosphatemia becomes clinically significant when there is underlying phosphate depletion. Otherwise, short-term acute hypophosphatemia is not usually associated with any specific disorder. Chronic hypophosphatemia, on the other hand, results in hematologic, neuromuscular, and cardiovascular dysfunction, and unless corrected, the consequences can be grave. Most of the time hypophosphatemia results from renal loss of phosphate, diagnosed by a fractional secretion of phosphate > 5%. It is hard to provide precise estimates of how many patients are seen with hypophosphatemia annually at academic medical centers. This is complicated by use of chemistry panels that do not measure inorganic phosphate unless specifically ordered. This often leads to delay in correct diagnosis, and, therefore, additional delay in providing appropriate management. A high index of suspicion alone avoids the unnecessary withholding of treatment that can be life saving. ( info)

10/131. Severe hypophosphatemia during hematopoietic reconstitution after allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation.

    A patient suffering from acute myeloid leukemia (FAB M5a) received a PBSC allograft from a matched, related donor. On day 13 after transplantation severe hypophosphatemia (0.21 mmol/l) was first noted which persisted irrespective of intravenous phosphate administration, and within 2 days reached concentrations below 0.13 mmol/l. After repeated phosphate substitution serum phosphate returned to 1.40 mmol/l on day 17. Phosphate in urine, and calcium in serum were recorded as unchanged throughout. Clinical signs and symptoms due to severe hypophosphatemia were not observed except for paresthesia in the lower extremities. The precipitous fall in serum phosphate coincided with hematopoietic reconstitution as reflected by a steep rise in leukocyte count from 0.08 x 109/l on day 10 to 5. 94 x 109/l on day 15 after transplantation. Thus, isolated hypophosphatemia was likely the result of excessive cellular phosphate uptake during hematopoietic reconstitution. Electrolyte monitoring after PBSCT should include serum phosphate to identify the hypophosphatemia associated with hematopoietic recovery. ( info)
| Next ->

Leave a message about 'hypophosphatemia'

We do not evaluate or guarantee the accuracy of any content in this site. Click here for the full disclaimer.