Cases reported "Hypopituitarism"

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1/640. Lymphocytic hypophysitis with central diabetes insipidus and consequent panhypopituitarism preceding a multifocal, intracranial germinoma in a prepubertal girl.

    We report the clinical course of a prepubertal girl with central diabetes insipidus (DI) and consequent panhypopituitarism evolving over a period of 10 years due to lymphocytic hypophysitis and subsequent germinoma. Two years after the diagnosis of central DI was established, MRI revealed a thickened pituitary stalk. Later pituitary enlargement and increasing thickening of the pituitary stalk impinging on the optic chiasm required a trans-sphenoidal biopsy which disclosed active hypophysitis with lymphocytic infiltrates and necrosis. High dose dexamethasone treatment only temporarily halted the disease process. Therefore, stereotactic radiation therapy was performed as a rescue treatment and MRI findings almost reversed. However, the subsequent MRI showed multiple intracranial lesions identified histologically as a germinoma and a standard chemotherapy and radiation was performed. CONCLUSION: The diagnosis of diabetes insipidus in children requires long-term follow up beyond the pubertal age in order to establish the underlying cause. In contrast to lymphocytic hypophysitis in adults, lymphocytic hypophysitis in prepubertal children may represent the first sign of a host reaction to an occult germinoma. ( info)

2/640. Post-traumatic anterior pituitary insufficiency developed in a patient with partial lipodystrophy.

    A case of partial lipodystrophy developing anterior pituitary insufficiency, chronic glomerulonephritis and pulmonary fibrosis was reported. The patient died of respiratory failure secondary to pituitary crisis during the hospital course. From the clinical course in recent several years and the postmortem examination the head injury following car accident in the past history was considered to be the most plausible cause of hypopituitarism. The etiology of pulmonary fibrosis remained unresolved. ( info)

3/640. Primary hypothyroidism and pituitary insufficiency.

    A 40-year-old man with primary hypothyroidism and sellar enlargement is described. There was deficiency of all pituitary tropic hormones except TSH which was elevated. TRH stimulation revealed responsiveness of pituitary thyrotropic cells, and thyroxine administration suppressed the elevated TSH. These findings are compatible with either a TSH-producing chromophobe adenoma resulting from primary hypothyroidism or, because of the suppressibility of the TSH secretion, thyrotropic hyperplasia secondary to hypothyroidism maintaining TSH secretion in the face of a non-TSH-secreting pituitary tumor. ( info)

4/640. Rathke's cleft cyst as a cause of growth hormone deficiency and micropenis.

    Rathke's cleft cyst has rarely been reported in pediatric patients, and such cysts are usually found by chance, in 2-33% of routine necropsies, as they have not interfered with pituitary function. In general, they are intrasellar with a single layer of ciliated cuboidal or columnar epithelium containing mucoid material. The age range in which symptomatic Rathke's cleft cysts occur is between 30 and 60 years. This paper reports an 8.1-year-old boy presenting with growth hormone deficiency and micropenis attributable to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH), implying altered pituitary function since intrauterine life. At this age (before puberty) the diagnosis of HH can be made by means of the LHRH agonist stimulation test, since conventional LHRH is not able to discriminate HH from a normal prepubertal child. To our knowledge, this is the first case of micropenis caused by Rathke's cleft cyst interfering with gonadotropin and growth hormone secretion since intrauterine life. ( info)

5/640. A case of autoimmune hypophysitis associated with asymptomatic primary biliary cirrhosis.

    We report a 61-year old male patient with panhypopituitarism complicated with asymptomatic primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated high intensity of the anterior pituitary gland. There was no mass lesion or enlargement of the pituitary gland or the stalk. Immunoblot analysis of the patient's sera with rat pituitary antigens revealed a band with a molecular size of 22 kD. Anti-M2 mitochondrial antibody has been consistently positive for five years. liver biopsy revealed portal hepatitis with periportal infiltration of the inflammatory cells. This is the first case report of autoimmune hypophysitis complicated with asymptomatic PBC. ( info)

6/640. Lymphocytic hypophysitis associated with dacryoadenitis: an autoimmunologically mediated syndrome.

    We report a rare case of lymphocytic hypophysitis followed by dacryoadenitis. Lymphocytic hypophysitis is a rare disease that can easily be mistaken for neoplastic proliferation. Because combination with rheumatoid arthritis, thyroiditis, or pernicious anemia is frequent, an immunological pathogenesis is likely. ( info)

7/640. hypercalcemia accompanied by hypothalamic hypopituitarism, central diabetes inspidus and hyperthyroidism.

    We present here a case of prominent hypercalcemia accompanied by hypothalamic tumor and Graves' disease. A 24-year-old man with hypothalamic tumor showed hypopituitarism, central diabetes inspidus (DI) and hyperthyroidism. nausea, loss of thirst and appetite, and general fatigue were found with the unveiling of hypercalcemia and hypernatremia. parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 1alpha-dihydroxyvitamin D levels were suppressed with a normal range of PTH-related protein values. One-desamino-(8-D-arginine)-vasopressin (DDAVP) and half-saline administration normalized hypernatremia, while hypercalcemia was still sustained. Administration of cortisone acetate and thiamazole reduced the elevated serum Ca level. In the present case, concurrent hyperthyroidism was assumed to accelerate skeletal mobilization of calcium into the circulation. Hypocortisolism and central DI was also considered to contribute, to some extent, to the hypercalcemia through renal handling of Ca. ( info)

8/640. Aplasia of right internal carotid artery and hypopituitarism.

    BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of congenital hypopituitarism is unknown in many cases. OBJECTIVE: We report a case of congenital pan-anterior hypopituitarism in association with a complex vascular abnormality involving the central nervous system, nasal pyriform aperture stenosis, and a single central maxillary incisor. MATERIALS AND methods: MRI and MRA were used to define this patient's complex vascular anomaly. RESULTS: The vascular abnormality consists of absence of the right common carotid artery, the right internal carotid artery, the A1 segment of the right anterior cerebral artery, the anterior communicating artery, and partial absence of the M1 segment of the right middle cerebral artery. CONCLUSION: This unusual vascular anomaly may contribute to the pathogenesis of some cases of congenital hypopituitarism and related midline abnormalities, or may result from a common defect that causes pituitary insufficiency. ( info)

9/640. A case of congenital hypopituitarism: difficulty in the diagnosis of ACTH deficiency due to high serum cortisol levels from a hypothyroid state.

    A three-month-old boy presented congenital hypopituitarism in which the hypothyroid state masked ACTH deficiency. Multiple anterior pituitary hormone deficiencies, including ACTH, were finally confirmed. High basal serum cortisol levels (up to 45.1 microg/dl) were observed during a stressful episode before L-thyroxine replacement therapy was started. Decreased morning serum cortisol levels (5.0 microg/dl or below) were observed on the sixth day of L-thyroxine replacement therapy despite mild hypoglycemia (lowest serum glucose level of 50 mg/dl). ACTH deficiency was then confirmed by insulin-induced hypoglycemia test (peak serum cortisol level of 4.9 microg/dl). The present findings showed that serum cortisol levels can be high during a stressful episode in an infant with ACTH deficiency and a coexisting hypothyroid state. Thus, the diagnostic evaluation of adrenal function soon after L-thyroxine replacement therapy is important in order to verify a possible subclinical ACTH deficiency, even in the presence of high serum cortisol levels before L-thyroxine replacement therapy. ( info)

10/640. Relapsing Whipple's disease presenting with hypopituitarism.

    A 44-year-old man with a history of Whipple's disease 8 years ago presented with recurrent grand mal seizures and signs of hypopituitarism on physical examination. magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed a hypothalamic lesion of 1 cm diameter in the region of the rostral infundibulum. hypopituitarism was confirmed by low levels of serum cortisol, free testosterone and free thyroxine without an elevated TSH. Whipple encephalitis with hypothalamic involvement was suggested and verified by positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for tropheryma whippelii in the cerebrospinal fluid. PCR for T. whippelii has become an important diagnostic tool for establishing the diagnosis of Whipple's disease especially in patients with unusual presentations and if the diagnosis cannot be confirmed histologically. Whipple's disease should be included in the differential diagnosis in hypopituitarism caused by infectious disease. ( info)
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