Cases reported "Hypothalamic Neoplasms"

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1/182. Spontaneous remission of chiasmatic/hypothalamic masses in neurofibromatosis type 1: report of two cases.

    We report two children with neurofibromatosis type 1 showing enhancing masses on MRI suggesting neoplasms in the chiasm and hypothalamic region. In both patients no visual or endocrinal dysfunction was present. On serial MRI spontaneous partial remission was found, implying that a cautious approach to therapeutic management of similar cases should be taken. ( info)

2/182. Ictal bradycardia in a patient with a hypothalamic hamartoma: a stereo-EEG study.

    Little is known about bradycardia and cardiac asystole which occur during partial epileptic seizures, especially whether they relate to ictal involvement of well-defined cortical areas. Several reports based on simultaneous electrocardiographic and intracranial depth electroencephalographic monitoring have shown that either the fronto-orbital cortex or the amygdalohippocampal complex could be responsible for such cardiac variations. We performed stereo-EEG recordings in a patient with refractory localization-related epilepsy associated with a hypothalamic hamartoma. We found that other cortical areas, such as the frontocentral region and the temporal neocortex, can contribute to the genesis of ictal bradyarrhythmia. Second, the lesion per se, although located within the hypothalamus, is not involved with this phenomenon. ( info)

3/182. Spontaneous partial regression of low-grade glioma in children with neurofibromatosis-1: a real possibility.

    At the age of 41 and 31 months, respectively, a boy and a girl affected by neurofibromatosis-1 were diagnosed with a visual pathway glioma during surveillance contrast-enhanced head magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In the first child, the initial MRI showed that the entire optic chiasm, the intracranial tract of the left optic nerve, and hypothalamus were grossly enlarged and enhanced in the post-gadolinium T1-weighted images. Ten months later, the hypothalamic component of the lesion had regressed markedly and there were no more areas of contrast enhancement. In the second child, the initial MRI showed that the optic chiasm, the right optic tract, and geniculate body were enlarged and enhanced after gadolinium injection. At 6-month follow-up, the MRI showed that the right optic tract and the anterior aspect of the optic chiasm decreased in size and the contrast enhancement of the entire lesion was reduced dramatically. These findings, as indicated by other similar reports, confirm that spontaneous regression of visual pathway glioma is a rare but real possibility in children with neurofibromatosis-1. Therefore, clinicians need to be aware of visual pathway glioma's erratic behavior in children with neurofibromatosis-1 with special attention given to the importance of a very conservative attitude toward any type of treatment for such patients. ( info)

4/182. hypercalcemia in an euthyroid patient with secondary hypoadrenalism and diabetes insipidus due to hypothalamic tumor.

    A 20-year-old Japanese man with a hypothalamic tumor (most likely germ-cell tumor) which caused secondary hypoadrenalism, hypogonadism and diabetes insipidus developed hypercalcemia and acute renal failure. The serum levels of intact PTH (iPTH), PTH-related protein (PTH-rP), 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin d (1,25- (OH)2 D), ACTH, cortisol, gonadotropins and testosterone were decreased, but his serum levels of triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) were within the normal range at admission, with depressed TSH and slightly increased thyroglobulin. The hypercalcemia was refractory to extensive hydration and calcitonin, but was ameliorated by pamidronate. After irradiation of the hypothalamic tumor, panhypopituitarism gradually developed. The patient has been normocalcemic for the last 2 years and is doing well under replacement therapy with glucocorticoid, L-thyroxine, methyltestosterone and 1-desamino D arginine vasopressin (dDAVP). As to the mechanism of euthyroidism at admission, transient destructive thyroiditis associated with hypopituitarism or delayed development of hypothyroidism following the hypoadrenalism was suggested. This is the first reported case of hypercalcemia in secondary hypoadrenalism due to hypothalamic tumor. hypercalcemia was most likely induced by increased bone resorption, which was probably elicited by the combined effects of deficient glucocorticoid and sufficient thyroid hormones in addition to hypovolemia and reduced renal calcium excretion. Furthermore, severe dehydration due to diabetes insipidus and disturbance of thirst sensation caused by the hypothalamic tumor aggravated the hypercalcemia, leading to acute renal failure. ( info)

5/182. hypercalcemia accompanied by hypothalamic hypopituitarism, central diabetes inspidus and hyperthyroidism.

    We present here a case of prominent hypercalcemia accompanied by hypothalamic tumor and Graves' disease. A 24-year-old man with hypothalamic tumor showed hypopituitarism, central diabetes inspidus (DI) and hyperthyroidism. nausea, loss of thirst and appetite, and general fatigue were found with the unveiling of hypercalcemia and hypernatremia. parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 1alpha-dihydroxyvitamin D levels were suppressed with a normal range of PTH-related protein values. One-desamino-(8-D-arginine)-vasopressin (DDAVP) and half-saline administration normalized hypernatremia, while hypercalcemia was still sustained. Administration of cortisone acetate and thiamazole reduced the elevated serum Ca level. In the present case, concurrent hyperthyroidism was assumed to accelerate skeletal mobilization of calcium into the circulation. Hypocortisolism and central DI was also considered to contribute, to some extent, to the hypercalcemia through renal handling of Ca. ( info)

6/182. Late-onset central hypoventilation with hypothalamic dysfunction: a distinct clinical syndrome.

    Idiopathic central hypoventilation has occasionally been reported in previously well children after infancy. The relationship between this late-onset central hypoventilation syndrome (LO-CHS) and congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS) has not been established. Both CCHS and LO-CHS have been associated with neural crest tumors, such as ganglioneuroblastoma and ganglioneuroma, and they generally occur in the presence of a histologically normal central nervous system. At least 10 case reports of idiopathic LO-CHS featured evidence of hypothalamic dysfunction (HD), including hyperphagia, hypersomnolence, thermal dysregulation, emotional lability, and endocrinopathies. We report on a case of LO-CHS/HD successfully treated by nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV). Despite the commonalties with CCHS, we propose that LO-CHS/HD is a distinct clinical syndrome. In addition to the markedly different age at presentation, features of hypothalamic dysfunction are not seen in CCHS. review of the literature was undertaken to further clarify the full spectrum of the disease. ( info)

7/182. Resection of a Langerhans cell histiocytosis granuloma of the hypothalamus: case report.

    The natural course and optimal treatment for isolated hypothalamic Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) are unknown. We describe an adult female in whom total resection of a hypothalamic LCH granuloma was performed 12 years after transphenoidal resection of a pituitary adenoma. A retrospective review of the histological specimen of the first operation revealed CD1a positive cells characteristic of LCH along with a plurihormonal adenoma 12 years earlier. No other manifestations of LCH were found and MRI of the brain at the last follow-up 4 years after surgery did not show any recurrent or additional lesion. The diagnosis of isolated hypothalamic LCH is only possible by biopsy and our case demonstrates the feasability of a gross total resection in certain cases. ( info)

8/182. Spontaneous regression of low-grade astrocytomas in childhood.

    An 8-year-old boy with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and a biopsy-proven juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma of the hypothalamic/chiasmatic region was followed with serial MRIs over 4 years. Spontaneous tumor regression was followed by progression and biopsy; 6 months later, the tumor regressed again. This bimodal regression is rare, but highlights the variable natural history of low-grade gliomas in children with NF1 and the difficulty in evaluating response of such tumors to therapy. ( info)

9/182. Utility of early single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in neonatal gelastic epilepsy associated with hypothalamic hamartoma.

    Gelastic epilepsy, or laughing seizures, is a rare seizure manifestation often associated with hypothalamic hamartoma. This seizure type is well described in older children and adults, but has only rarely been reported in neonates, oftentimes recognized in retrospect when the children are older. We report a child diagnosed at 3 months of age with a large hypothalamic mass after evaluation for spells occurring since birth. The spells were characterized by bursts of hyperpnea, followed by repeated "cooing" respirations, giggling, and smiling. These spells were recognized soon after birth in the delivery room, and occurred at 15-20 minute intervals. They did not interrupt feeding and occurred during sleep. On referral to our center, the patient was noted to be thriving, with normal medical and neurologic examinations except for his spells. The laboratory evaluation was normal, as were endocrine and ophthalmologic evaluations. neuroimaging was performed, with magnetic resonance imaging demonstrating a large 2.8-cm isodense, nonenhancing hypothalamic mass. Electroencephalogram was abnormal, demonstrating bi-frontal sharp and spike-wave discharges. Video-EEG did not demonstrate ictal discharges associated with the patient's spells. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) demonstrated dramatic ictal uptake in the area of the tumor, with normalization during the interictal phase. Partial excision of hamartomatous tissue has minimally improved the spells. In conclusion, this patient manifested an unusual, early presentation of a rare seizure type. SPECT scanning confirmed the intrinsic epileptogenesis of the hamartoma, further justifying a surgical approach to such patients. Early surgical intervention is probably indicated in an attempt to minimize or prevent the cognitive and behavioral sequelae commonly seen with this seizure type. ( info)

10/182. endocrinology teaching rounds: primary amenorrhea in a 17-year-old woman.

    This endocrinology teaching rounds documents the evaluation of a 17.7-year-old woman with primary amenorrhea. The normal timing of developmental milestones for young women from adrenarche and pubarche through pubertal maturation and growth is reviewed, as are etiologies for amenorrhea. The differential diagnosis of the problem is developed from the patient's initial visit to diagnosis and treatment. The highlights of the management of this young woman after a diagnosis of craniopharyngioma are also discussed. This clinical case emphasizes the importance of understanding normal developmental landmarks and of detecting aberrant physiology-associated amenorrhea even when screening laboratory tests appear normal so that defects in normal development can be addressed earlier in life. ( info)
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