Cases reported "Hypotrichosis"

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1/79. Marie Unna hereditary hypotrichosis.

    Hereditary congenital hypotrichosis is an autosomal dominant pilar dysplasia first described by Marie Unna in an extended German family. The diffuse hair defect typically occurs as an isolated phenomenon and the ultrastructural hair findings consist of both torsion and longitudinal grooving of the hair shaft. A large pedigree comprising 6 generations with 20 members affected by Marie Unna hypotrichosis from italy is reported. ( info)

2/79. Linear lesions reflecting lyonization in women heterozygous for IFAP syndrome (ichthyosis follicularis with atrichia and photophobia).

    A diagnosis of IFAP (ichthyosis follicularis with atrichia and photophobia) syndrome was established in a 1-year-old boy with congenital hairlessness, generalized ichthyotic skin changes with follicular hyperkeratoses, and photophobia. IFAP syndrome is considered to be an X-linked recessive trait. The phenotype present in female carriers has so far not been delineated. A 2-year-old sister had atrophoderma and ichthyotic skin lesions arranged in a linear pattern and a large noncicatrical bald patch on her scalp. Similarly, the mother had linear lesions of scaling and atrophy as well as circumscribed hairless areas involving the scalp, the axillary region, and the lower legs. sweat testing by means of iodine starch-reaction visualized hypohidrotic linear lesions corresponding to the areas of hyperkeratosis and atrophy. In both mother and daughter the lesions followed the lines of Blaschko, whereas the boy was diffusely affected. family history showed that the boy's maternal uncle who had died at age 1 year was likewise affected with the same disorder. Moreover, the maternal grandmother had reportedly bald patches on her scalp and very dry skin. This is the first report to document linear skin lesions visualizing lyonization in women heterozygous for IFAP syndrome. ( info)

3/79. Sporadic case of trichorhinophalangeal syndrome type III in a European patient.

    Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome type III (TRP III) shares common traits with TRP I and II, including sparse hair, a "pear-shaped" nose, osteodysplasia with cone-shaped epiphyses, and autosomal dominant inheritance, but is distinguished by the presence of severe brachydactyly. TRP III was first described in 1984 in Japanese patients, one sporadic case [Sugio and Kajii, 1984: Am. J. Med. Genet. 19:741-753,1984] and two families [Niikawa and Kamei, 1986: Am. J. Med. Genet. 24:759-760; Nagai et al., 1994: Am. J. Med. Genet. 49:278-280], and more recently in a Turkish family [Itin et al., 1996: dermatology 193:349-352]. We report an additional observation in a patient of European descent, who presented with short stature, cone-shaped epiphyses, sparse hair, a pear-shaped nose, normal intelligence and severe brachydactyly. Neither parent had manifestations of TRP and there was no other reported case in the family, indicating a presumably fresh mutation. Our observation refines the clinical spectrum of TRP III in another ethnic background and may be of help in identifying the gene or genes for TRP syndromes. ( info)

4/79. EEM syndrome: report of a family and results of a ten-year follow-up.

    We report on a Brazilian kindred in which two sibs presented with the complete form of EEM (ectodermal dysplasia, ectrodactyly, and macular dystrophy) syndrome with hypotrichosis, dental anomalies, syndactyly, and retinal changes with prominent pigmentation in the posterior pole of the retina. In this family, we also observed another sib with syndactyly, as well as a first cousin with ectrodactyly. A 10-year follow-up demonstrated gradually decreasing visual acuity and progression of retinal degenerative anomalies. ( info)

5/79. ectodermal dysplasia with hypodontia in a set of Nigerian twins--a case report.

    A set of Nigerian male twins with features of ectodermal dysplasia born to apparently normal parents are presented. The main findings in both children were hypodontia, abnormally shaped teeth and hypotrichosis. The general treatment modalities of the condition, especially in a tropical environment, are discussed. ( info)

6/79. A sporadic case of congenital hypotrichosis simplex of the scalp: difficulties in diagnosis and classification.

    Hereditary hypotrichosis simplex of the scalp is a genotrichosis characterized by a hair defect limited to the scalp in the absence of other ectodermal or systemic abnormalities. Only large pedigrees consistent with autosomal dominant transmission have been described to date. In this article the clinical and scanning electron microscopy findings of a nonfamilial case of congenital scalp hypotrichosis simplex are reported. In some patients the diagnosis of sporadic hypotrichosis simplex of the scalp should be considered after ruling out all other possible causes of congenital and hereditary hypotrichosis. ( info)

7/79. Marie Unna congenital hypotrichosis: clinical description, histopathology, scanning electron microscopy of a previously unreported large pedigree.

    Marie Unna congenital hypotrichosis (MUCH) is a rare autosomal dominant condition in which abnormalities are confined to hair shaft structure and hair density. We report a six-generation pedigree consisting of 59 members of whom 16 are affected; nine identified affected individuals are living. Affected individuals are born with adequate, normal to coarse hair. During early infancy the scalp hair becomes more coarse and wiry and stands out from the head. All affected individuals have sparse to absent eyebrows, eyelashes and body hair including secondary sexual hair. In some individuals, scalp hair is progressively lost beginning at puberty or beyond, until only a sparse fringe in the tonsorial distribution remains. The hair shafts are uniformly increased in diameter, measuring up to 0.12 mm. Individual hair shafts are deeply pigmented, variable in diameter, twisted, and bent at odd angles; some have a longitudinal groove visible on scanning electron microscopy. Cross-sectional shapes are variable and irregular, exhibiting oval, angular to reniform shapes. Multiple anagen hairs are extractable on gentle hair pull. Other ectodermal structures are unaffected except for exceptionally widely spaced upper incisor teeth seen in 50% of affected individuals. Histologically, there are dramatically reduced numbers of follicles per unit area, averaging nine total hairs per 4 mm cross-section as compared with a normal of 40. A mild to moderate inflammatory infiltrate is present, but little fibrosis and no scarring. The mechanism of progressive hair loss is unknown. ( info)

8/79. Sporadic Bazex-Dupre-Christol-like syndrome: early onset basal cell carcinoma, hypohidrosis, hypotrichosis, and prominent milia.

    BACKGROUND: We present the case of a 32-year-old woman with a large recurrent multifocal basal cell carcinoma on the scalp. Conspicuous accompanying symptoms were multiple periorbital milia, hypotrichosis of the body and the scalp, and hypohidrosis. The sparse hair of the scalp showed further abnormalities such as pili torti, as well as flattened, irregularly curly hairs. OBJECTIVE: In 1964, Bazex et al. described a syndrome characterized by congenital hypotrichosis, follicular atrophoderma, and basocellular neoplasms that included basal cell nevi and early onset basal cell carcinomas. The Bazex-Dupre-Christol syndrome is a rare X-linked dominant disease. A sporadic occurrence with the typical constellation of these symptoms has not yet been reported. The lack of a positive family history and no signs of follicular atrophoderma argues for a sporadic occurrence of a Bazex-Dupre-Christol-like syndrome. The case reported shares several features with the classic Bazex-Dupre-Christol syndrome. CONCLUSION: Our report documents the necessity to look for early development of basal cell carcinomas in patients who show signs of the epidermal malformations described. ( info)

9/79. anodontia with hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia in a young female: a case report.

    A five-year-old Japanese girl was referred to our clinic for non-eruption of the teeth. Panoramic radiographs revealed absence of all teeth of both primary and permanent dentitions. She showed hypotricosis, hypohidrosis, and anodontia. In this article, the reported cases of anodontia were reviewed and the fabricating procedure of full dentures for a young child was described. ( info)

10/79. Linkage of Marie-Unna hypotrichosis locus to chromosome 8p21 and exclusion of 10 genes including the hairless gene by mutation analysis.

    Marie-Unna hypotrichosis (MU) is a rare autosomal dominant congenital alopecia characterised by progressive hair loss starting in early childhood, often aggravated at puberty and leading to scarring alopecia of variable severity. We have studied three multigeneration families of Belgian, British and French descent. The human genome was screened with microsatellite markers spaced at 10-cM intervals and significant evidence for linkage to the disease was observed on chromosome 8p21, with a maximum two-point lod score of 8.26 for D8S1786 at a recombination fraction of 0. Recombinants narrowed the region of interest to a genetic interval of about 12 cM flanked by markers D8S280 and D8S1839. This interval contains the hairless gene which is mutated in autosomal recessive congenital atrichia. Sequencing of the entire coding region and intronic splice sites of the hairless gene in these three families and in two unrelated familial cases revealed several polymorphic changes but failed to identify causative mutations. Nine other genes located within this region and expressed in skin were also excluded by mutation analysis. Together with a recent linkage study performed in a Dutch and a British family by van Steensel et al these results provide evidence for the presence of a gene distinct from hairless in chromosomal region 8p21 playing an important role in hair follicle biology. ( info)
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