Cases reported "hypovolemia"

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1/15. Colonic perforation following prolonged hypovolaemia in a major burns injury.

    Perforation of the lower gastrointestinal tract is rare in burns patients. A 41-year-old male, who sustained 40% total body surface area burns and subsequently developed an acute abdomen on day 15 postburn, is presented. Emergency management included a subtotal colectomy and ileostomy formation performed to repair a perforated transverse colon found at laparotomy. The burns were debrided and grafted and the patient required cardiac, renal and respiratory support initially in the ITU setting before making a complete recovery. It is suggested that ischaemia caused the perforated transverse colon due to a prolonged low flow state. This was not detected until invasive cardiovascular catheterisation was performed and revealed a hypovolaemic state, which was corrected by fluids and noradrenaline. Both the previous cardiac history of the patient (Fallot's Tetralogy repair) and the noradrenaline may have exacerbated the low flow state within the mesenteric circulation leading to ultimate perforation. This case highlights the difficulties that may arise in resuscitating a patient who has previously had a cardiac defect repaired. Despite repair, abnormal physiology may persist resulting in misleading observations that produce undetected hypovolaemia with subsequent adverse events, as in this case. In such patients, early invasive cardiovascular monitoring should be considered. ( info)

2/15. Prehospital rounds. Beyond SVT.

    This patient had a complex presentation, with many potential causes for his shock status. He was obviously in shock, with many signs of poor perfusion. He presented with very rapid heart and respiratory rates, and poor skin perfusion and oxygenation. The clinical presentation of the patient prompted the EMS crew to consider electrical cardioversion in hopes of addressing the unstable tachycardic rate. However, the crew opted to consider the patient's past medical history--i.e., the diarrhea, vomiting and lack of fluid intake--and instead treat the patient for hypovolemia. The picture had not improved by arrival at the ED, and had not been corrected with a fluid bolus. ( info)

3/15. Gelofusine allergy--the need for identification jewellery.

    A case of anaphylactoid reaction due solely to the use of Gelofusine in a patient with non-haemorrhagic hypovolaemia is presented, with a discussion on the management and the use of allergy identification jewellery. ( info)

4/15. hypovolemia-induced reversible severe mitral regurgitation due to left ventricular outflow tract obstruction.

    We describe a hypertensive patient who developed profound cardiogenic shock after treatment with nitrates and diuretics. echocardiography revealed a marked left ventricular outflow tract obstruction with severe mitral regurgitation that were reversible after aggressive fluid therapy. ( info)

5/15. Severe electrolyte disturbances and renal failure in elderly patients with combined diuretic therapy including xipamid.

    diuretics are among the most frequently prescribed substances in elderly patients, but they are also associated with the highest incidence of adverse effects in this group of patients. xipamide is a sulfonamide-like diuretic whose action does not depend on transtubular secretion. This characteristic makes it suitable for situations in which the kidney is highly sodium avid. Because of the potency of this substance the risk of adverse reactions like electrolyte disorders or hypovolemia is increased as well. We report seven patients (age 65-85) admitted to the emergency room of the University Hospital of Innsbruck between 1998 and 2002 who had developed serious adverse reactions upon initiation of treatment with xipamide as an additional diuretic. Six of these patients had received combinations with loop diuretics. The disturbances observed were hyponatremia (lowest value 108 mmol/l), hypokalemia (lowest value 1.5 mmol/l) and prerenal azotemia (highest serum urea 269 mg/dl, highest serum creatinine 5.13). CONCLUSION: With the exception of diuretic resistance in severe heart failure or renal insufficiency a combination therapy of xipamide with a second diuretic appears to be associated with an unnecessarily high risk of serious adverse reactions and thus should be avoided. This is especially true for elderly patients. ( info)

6/15. Broadening the clinical spectrum: unusual presentation of spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid hypovolemia. Case report.

    The syndrome of spontaneous intracranial hypotension is characterized by orthostatic headaches in conjunction with reduced cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure or CSF volume, and characteristic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings. A 50-year-old man presented with a 1-year history of paroxysmal ataxia of gait and short attacks of blurred vision when he stood up from a recumbent position and began to walk. Orthostatic headache was not a feature of his clinical presentation. Magnetic resonance images of the brain revealed diffuse enhancement of the dura mater and hygromas over both cerebral convexities. Magnetic resonance images of the spine demonstrated dilated cervical epidural veins and dilation of the perimedullary veins. Radionuclide cisternography identified a CSF leakage that was localized to the T12-L1 level on subsequent myelograms and on computerized tomography scans obtained after the myelograms. An epidural blood patch was administered and visualized with tungsten powder. The patient's clinical symptoms and sites of disease on imaging completely resolved. The unusual clinical presentation in this case--paroxysmal ataxia of gait, lack of orthostatic headaches, and dilated epidural and perimedullary venous plexus--supports a recently noted broadening of both the clinical and imaging characteristics of spontaneous intracranial hypovolemia. ( info)

7/15. Sudden blindness caused by anterior ischemic optic neuropathy in 5 children on continuous peritoneal dialysis.

    The authors report the occurrence of sudden blindness in 5 children (mean age, 32 months; range, 11 to 60) during continuous peritoneal dialysis regimen. All children presented with loss of light perception, visual fixation and ocular pursuit, and bilateral mydriasis unreactive to bright light. Fundoscopic examination found signs of anterior ischemic optic neuropathy with disc swelling, edema, and hemorrhages. Whereas 1 patient was dehydrated, the 4 other patients appeared well and not dehydrated. Nevertheless, blood pressure was below the normal range in all of them. Therefore, hypovolemia is highly suspected to have been the cause of ischemic optic neuropathy in all cases. Treatment consisted of steroids (4 patients), anticoagulation or antiagregation drugs (3 patients), plasma or macromolecules infusions (2 patients), vasodilatators (2 patients), and transient dialysis interruption (1 patient). One child with hepatic cirrhosis died 4 days later of acute liver insufficiency owing to ischemic hepatic necrosis. The other children had only partial improvement of vision during the following months. Because the prognosis of ischemic optic neuropathy is very poor, diagnosis and treatment of chronic hypovolemia in children on continuous peritoneal dialysis is essential to prevent such a devastating complication. ( info)

8/15. Ruptured heterotopic pregnancy presenting with relative bradycardia in a woman not receiving reproductive assistance.

    We report a case of heterotopic pregnancy in a woman who had not undergone in vitro fertilization or any other reproductive assistance. The patient failed to mount a tachycardic response to hemorrhagic shock. bradycardia is a well-established phenomenon in the setting of hemoperitoneum and particularly with ruptured ectopic pregnancy. This is a case of heterotopic pregnancy with relative bradycardia in a woman without predisposing factors for heterotopic pregnancy. We make suggestions on avoiding common pitfalls in the emergency department diagnosis of heterotopic pregnancy. We also address the similar clinical presentations of heterotopic pregnancy and intrauterine pregnancy with ruptured corpus luteum cyst. ( info)

9/15. Volume expansion during neonatal intensive care: do we know what we are doing?

    Although volume expansion is liberally used in newborn intensive care, we know little about its effects on hemodynamics or outcomes. Given appropriately to a truly hypovolemic baby, it can be life-saving, but the clinical diagnosis of hypovolemia is probably very inaccurate. We know that volume expansion has less effect on blood pressure than dopamine, and although it seems to produce immediate increases in systemic blood flow, we do not know for how long these increases are sustained. There is evidence to show that the routine use of volume expansion in preterm babies has no effect on outcome, and there is little evidence to support its routine use during resuscitation or the treatment of metabolic acidosis. Whether crystalloids or colloids are preferable is also unclear in newborns. In situations of concern related to circulatory compromise, if possible, define the hemodynamics echocardiographically. Otherwise, if in doubt, some volume should be given, although it is probably unwise to keep expanding the volume if this is not improving physiologic (blood pressure and heart rate) or echocardiographic systemic blood flow parameters. ( info)

10/15. Severe volume depletion leading to mitral insufficiency.

    We report a patient with profound hypovolemia who developed dynamic left ventricular outflow tract obstruction and severe mitral regurgitation. Both the outflow tract obstruction and mitral regurgitation resolved with volume replacement. Unlike previous reports of dynamic left ventricular outflow obstruction and mitral regurgitation, the degree of mitral regurgitation was severe. Possible mechanisms are discussed. ( info)
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