Cases reported "Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain"

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1/65. Parasagittal cerebral injury: magnetic resonance findings.

    Parasagittal cerebral injury is a specific pathologic lesion that can be found in full-term newborn babies suffering from hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. It is defined by the presence of cortical and subcortical white-matter necrosis involving the parasagittal and superomedial areas of the cerebral convexities. We report on two patients who showed parasagittal cerebral injury on magnetic resonance imaging. In both cases antecedents of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy were noted. In one of the patients basal ganglia involvement was also detected by cranial magnetic resonance imaging. In the follow-up studies the presence of upper-limb pyramidal signs and dyspraxia were two of the more pronounced symptoms. We will discuss the usefulness of neuroimaging, especially magnetic resonance imaging with coronal views, in the diagnosis of the parasagittal cerebral injury. ( info)

2/65. Predicting outcome from coma: man-in-the-barrel syndrome as potential pitfall.

    The glasgow coma scale motor score is often used in predicting outcome after hypoxic-ischemic coma. Judicious care should be exerted when using this variable in predicting outcome in patients with coma following hypotension since borderzone infarction can obscure the clinical picture. We describe a patient who underwent skull base surgery for a schwannoma of the left facial nerve. The operation, which lasted for 10 h, was conducted under controlled hypotension. After the intervention the patient remained comatose with absent arm movements upon painful stimuli. An absent motor score usually carries a poor prognosis. However, magnetic resonance inversion recovery imaging of the brain showed bilateral hyperintense lesions in the arm-hand area indicative of borderzone ischemic damage. The patient received optimal supportive care and after 17 days he regained consciousness with 'man-in-the-barrel syndrome', which also further improved over time. ( info)

3/65. Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy with cystic brain stem necroses and thalamic calcifications in a preterm twin.

    A severe and rare ischemic brain lesion in a preterm twin boy is reported. The boy was born after two weeks of anhydramnios and amnionic infection at 24 weeks of gestation. Following a difficult Caesarean section and prolonged umbilical cord compression he developed prenatal acidosis with an umbilical cord pH of 6.96. At the age of 7 h, heart rate variability narrowed due to severely disturbed brain stem function and the patient developed clinical signs of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Sonography demonstrated extensive symmetrical brain stem and basal ganglia lesions. After a prolonged comatose and apneic state, death occurred at the age of 25 days. autopsy confirmed columnar bilateral cavitation of basal ganglia, diencephalon, brain stem and spinal gray matter, as well as focal calcifications in the palladium, thalamus, and brain stem. The findings highly resemble those observed after experimental or clinical cardiac arrest. ( info)

4/65. Postoperative confusion preceded by decreased frontal lobe haemoglobin oxygen saturation.

    We describe a 58-year-old male patient with confusion and prolonged recovery after liver transplantation. A cause was not apparent for the confusion, but during surgery, monitoring of the frontal lobe cerebral haemoglobin oxygen saturation by near-infrared spectrophotometry showed cerebral hypo-oxygenation despite optimization of conventional cardiovascular parameters. It is possible that intraoperative cerebral ischaemia is the cause of postsurgical confusion and with near-infrared spectrophotometry this hypothesis may be tested clinically. ( info)

5/65. Cytochrome oxidase deficiency presenting as birth asphyxia.

    Hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) was diagnosed in an infant with acidosis. At 7 weeks of age further investigations revealed abnormal neuroimaging (CT and MRI scans) and a raised plasma and CSF lactate. A skeletal-muscle biopsy at 2 months of age confirmed the diagnosis of cytochrome oxidase deficiency. The course of the patient's disorder has taken that of a static encephalopathy (cerebral palsy). Inborn disorders of the respiratory chain should be considered in the differential diagnosis of HIE. ( info)

6/65. Postanoxic parkinsonism: clinical, radiologic, and pathologic correlation.

    The authors report a 72-year-old patient who presented with parkinsonism after hypoxic-ischemic insult. T1-weighted MRI revealed high signal intensity lesions in the basal ganglia. Pathologic study of the brain disclosed multiple foci of old infarcts with gliosis and lipid-laden and hemosiderin-laden macrophages, indicating a previous minor hemorrhage after infarction. This observation provided pathologic correlation with the patient's clinical symptoms and MRI. ( info)

7/65. Possible mechanisms in infants for selective basal ganglia damage from asphyxia, kernicterus, or mitochondrial encephalopathies.

    magnetic resonance imaging and neuropathologic studies have demonstrated remarkably selective patterns of injury to subregions of the basal ganglia in children. Examples are kernicterus and certain mitochondrial encephalopathies, which cause selective injury to the globus pallidus, and near-total perinatal asphyxia, which causes lesions in the putamen and thalamus. To explain the differential vulnerability of nuclei within millimeters of each other, we hypothesize that their locations within the neurotransmitter-specific circuitry of the basal ganglia motor loop are important. In severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, excitatory glutamatergic pathways into the putamen and thalamus are overactive, but the globus pallidus might be protected because its activity is silenced by inhibitory neuronal activity. In contrast, the relatively high resting neuronal activity in the globus pallidus might make it more vulnerable to less intense, subacute oxidative stresses from mitochondrial toxins such as bilirubin or from genetic mitochondrial disorders. This hypothesis has implications for designing neuroprotective therapies and for treating associated chronic movement disorders. ( info)

8/65. Monozygotic twins with fetal akinesia: the importance of clinicopathological work-up in predicting risks of recurrence.

    Fetal Akinesia Deformation Sequence (FADS) or Pena-Shokeir Sequence is a heterogeneous group of disorders in which prolonged decrease or absence of fetal movements results in a series of deformational anomalies: multiple contractures, pulmonary hypoplasia, craniofacial anomalies, polyhydramnios, intrauterine growth retardation, and short umbilical cord. Three sets of monozygotic twins, and their affected sibs, are presented. Detailed pathological work-up established that the two pairs of twins concordant for FADS were of myogenic etiology while the set discordant was due to anoxic-ischemic damage. In the myogenic cases, the rate of recurrence was high, in agreement with the findings from the study on arthrogryposis multiplex congenita of myogenic origin. In light of these findings, in sporadic cases of myogenic FADS, counselling, a recurrence risk of 25% seems prudent. In neurogenic cases associated with primary cerebral malformations, there are cases cited in the literature that are clearly recessive as indicated by affected sibs, but many reported are isolated occurrences. Therefore, in this scenario, giving a recurrent risk of 10-15% appears appropriate. In light of autosomal recessive spinal muscular atrophy and reports of familial FADS due to primary anterior horn cell loss, counselling a 25% risk seems prudent. In cases due to anoxic-ischemic damage, offering a low recurrent risk of 1% appears justified. ( info)

9/65. molybdenum cofactor deficiency: report of three cases presenting as hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

    We report three infants with the diagnosis of molybdenum cofactor deficiency. The key findings leading to diagnosis were neonatal seizures unresponsive to treatment, craniofacial dysmorphic features, hyperexcitability, low blood uric acid levels, and neuroimaging findings. The parents were consanguineous in two of these patients. The diagnosis was established by the presence of low blood uric acid levels, positive urine sulfite reaction, quantitative aminoacid analysis, and high-voltage electrophoresis of the urine sample showing a typical increase of S-sulfo-L-cysteine. skin fibroblast cultures confirmed the diagnosis. magnetic resonance imaging findings were suggestive of encephalomalacia with cystic changes due to hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. We conclude that molybdenum cofactor deficiency must be included in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with intractable seizures in the newborn period who have computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings reminiscent of those of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, and the urine sulfite dipstick test can be a part of the evaluation of these infants in neonatal intensive care units. ( info)

10/65. Short report: Hyperammonaemia in critically ill septic infants.

    Three infants with subphrenic abscess, pyonephrosis, and obstructive ureterocoele respectively had grossly increased concentrations of plasma ammonia. This was considered to be a result of infections with urea splitting organisms. All died in spite of intensive care support, including specific measures to reduce plasma ammonia. ( info)
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